National Wildlife Health Center

...advancing wildlife and ecosystem health

List of Species Affected by H5N1 (Avian Influenza)



Referenced reports of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in wildlife and domestic animals
image Printer Friendly version

Scientific Name Common Name wild captive domestic experimental mortality Source Used
Class: Insecta
Aldrichina grahami Blow fly +      -Sawabe et al., 2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:327.
Calliphora nigribarbis Blow fly +       Sawabe et al., 2006. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:327.
Culex tritawniorhynchus Mosquito +       Barbazan et al., 2008. Vector-borne Zoo Dis 8:105.
Class: Mammalia
Bos taurus Cow      + -Kalthoff et al., 2008. Emerg Inf Dis 14:1132.
Canis lupus familiaris Dog +      +Songserm et al., 2006. Emerg Inf Dis 12:1744.
Catopuma temminckii Asiatic golden cat  +     -Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Chrotogale owstoni Owston's Palm Civet  +     +Roberton et al, 2006. Proc R Soc 273B:1729-1732
Equs a. asinus donkey    +   -Isolation and characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 from donkeys
Felis catus Domestic cat/feral cat +    + +Kuiken et.al. 2004. Science 306:241.
Macaca fascicularis Cynomolgus macques  +   + -Rimmelzwaan et al., 2001. J Virol 75:6687-6691.
Martes foina Stone (beech) marten +      +Avian influenza ? H5N1 infection found in a stone marten in Germany
Mus musculus House mouse      + +Gubareva et al., 1998. J Inf Dis 178:1592.
Mustela putoris furo Ferret      + +Govorkova et.al., 2004. J Virol 79:2191-2198.
Mustela vision Mink  +      Zohari et al., 2008. Virus Genes 36:117.
Neofelis nebulosa Clouded leopard  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Ochotona curzoniae Black-lipped pika +       Zhou et al., 2009. J Virol 83:8957-8964.
Oryctolagus cuniculus New Zealand white rabbit      + -Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24,
Panthera pardus Leopard  +     +Keawcharoen et.al., 2004. EID 10:2189-2191, Thanawongnuwech et.al., 2005. EID 11:699-701.
Panthera tigris Tiger  +     +Keawcharoen et.al., 2004. EID 10:2189-2191, Thanawongnuwech et.al., 2005. EID 11:699-701.
Rattus norvegicus Rat      + -Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Sus domesticus Pig    + + -Choi et al. 2005. J Virol 79:10821.
Vulpes vulpes Red fox      +  Reperant et al., 2008. Emerging Infect Dis. DOI: 10.3201/eid1412.080470.
Order: Anseriformes
Aix galericulata Mandarin duck +      +Choi, CY. Pers comm (1/4/11) & http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10121
Aix sponsa Wood duck  +   + +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazillian teal  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Anas acuta Northern pintail +    + +OIE Disease Information Vol 19. No. 14.Brown et al., 2006. EID 12:1663-1670.
Anas bahamensis Bahama pintail (White-cheeked pintail)  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Anas castanea Chestnut-breasted teal  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Anas crecca Blue-winged teal +    + -Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS 4:e6926
Anas formosa Baikal teal +      +Choi, CY. Pers comm (1/4/11) & http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=single_report&pop=1&reportid=10121
Anas penelope Eurasian wigeon +    + -Yu et al., 2007. EID 13:772-775, Keawcharoen et al., 2008. EID 14:600.
Anas platalea Argentine shoveller  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Anas platyrhynchos Domestic duck/Mallard +  + + +Guan et.al. 2002. Virology 292:16-23.
Anas sibilatrix Chiloe wigeon  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Anas strepera Gadwall +    + -OIE Mission to Russia, 2005, Keawcharoen et al., 2008. EID 14:600.
Anas versicolor Puna teal  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Anser albifrons Greater white-fronted goose +      +ProMED 20051130.3460 (HPAI H5); Dan Hulea, per. Comm.
Anser anser Greylag goose +      +ProMed 20060510.1341 AVIAN INFLUENZA - WORLDWIDE (108): DENMARK, GERMANY
Anser anser domesticus Domestic goose    + + +Guan et.al. 2002. Virology 292:16-23.
Anser erythropus Lesser white-fronted goose +      +OIE Romania Follow-up report No. 6, ProMED 20051130.3460.
Anser indicus Bar-headed goose +    + +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Aythya americana Redhead      + -Brown et al., 2006. EID 12:1663-1670.
Aythya ferina Common pochard +    + -OIE Mission to Russia, 2005, Keawcharoen et al., 2008. EID 14:600.
Aythya fuligula Tufted duck +    + +ProMED 20060219.0541, Keawcharoen et al., 2008. EID 14:600.
Aythya marila Greater scaup +      +OIE Disease Information V.19 No.12.
Branta bernicla Brent goose +      +OIE Disease Information V.19 No.11.
Branta canadensis Canada goose ++     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505, Kiss et al., 2008. Virology J 5:113.
Branta hutchinsii Cackling goose      + +Brown et al.2008.EID 14:136-142.
Branta leucopsis Barnacle goose +      +OIE Disease Information V.19 No.11.
Branta ruficollis Red-breasted goose +      +Bird flu battle hots up
Bucephala clangula Common goldeneye +      +Rinder et al., 2007. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:279-282.
Cairina moschata Muscovy duck    +   +Komar and Olsen, 2008. Emerg Inf Dis 14;1177.
Callonetta leucophrys Ringed teal  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Chenonetta jubata Manned wood-duck  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba swan  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Cygnus atratus Black swan  +   + +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Cygnus buccinator Trumpeter swan      + +Brown et al.2008.EID 14:136-142.
Cygnus columbianus Tundra swan +      +21/12/2010: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Japan, (Follow-up report No. 3)
Cygnus cygnus Whooper Swan +      +Promed 20050826.2527
Cygnus melanocoryphus Black-necked swan  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Cygnus olor Mute swan +    + +FAOAIDE News Update on Avian Influenza #35; Brown et al.2008.EID 14:136-142.
Dendrocygna viduata White-faced whistling-duck  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Mergellus albellus Smew +      +ProMED 20060222.0569
Mergus merganser Goosander/Common merganser +      +Manin & Irza, ARRIAH, 2007. Pers. Comm.
Nesochen sandvicensis Hawaiian goose  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Netta peposaca Rosybill pochard duck  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Netta rufina Red-crested pochard ++     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy duck  +     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Tadorna ferruginea Ruddy shelduck +      +OIE 2005. Disease Information Vol.18-no.21
Order: Charadriformes
Larus argentatus Herring gull +    + +Komar and Olsen, 2008. Emerg Inf Dis 14:1177.
Larus atricilla Laughing gull      + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Larus brunnicephalus Brown-headed gull ++     +Chen et al., 2005. Nature 436:191-192, Liu et al., 2005.Science 309:1206.
Larus canus Common gull +      ?Anonymous. 2010. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. Jan-Feb; (1):29-32.
Larus ichthyaetus Great black-headed gull ++     +Chen et al., 2005. Nature 436:191-192, Liu et al., 2005.Science 309:1206.
Larus ridibundus Black-headed gull +      +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Larus schistisagus Slaty-backed gull +       Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Numenius arquata Eurasian curlew +       Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Tringa ochropus Green sandpiper +      -OIE Mission to Russia 2005
Order: Ciconiiformes
Anastomus oscitans Asian open-billed stork +      +ProMED 20041214.3303, Keawcharoen et al., 2005.
Ardea alba Great egret +      +Great Egret tests positive for H5N1 virus
Ardea cinerea Grey heron ++     +Migratory bird tested positive for H5N1 virus
Ardea herodias (?) Great blue heron +      +ProMED 20051130.3460, 20051201.3463 (HPAI H5)
Ardeola bacchus Chinese pond heron +      -OIE 2005 Disease Information Vol. 18-no2, Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Ardeola ibis Cattle egret +      +Feare, 2007. Avian Dis 51:440-447.
Ardeola speciosa Javan pond heron  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Ciconia ciconia White stork +      +ProMed 20060510.1341 AVIAN INFLUENZA - WORLDWIDE (108): DENMARK, GERMANY
Egretta garzetta Little egret ++     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned night heron +      +Dead bird H5N1-positive
Order: Columbiformes
Columba livia Feral pigeon +    + +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Macropygia ruficeps? Little cuckoo dove ?      ?GenBank
Streptopelia chinensis Spotted dove/Spotted turtle dove +      ?Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Streptopelia chinensis Spotted dove/Spotted Turtle Dove +      -Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Streptopelia tranquebarica Red-collared dove +      ?ProMED 20041214.3303
Order: Coraciiformes
Merops philippinus Blue-tailed bee-eater +      -Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Merops philippinus Blue tailed bee-eater +      -Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Order: Falconiformes
Accipiter gentilis Northern goshawk +      +OIE 2006. Disease Information vol19 no.8.
Accipter trivirgatus Crested goshawk +      +Hong Kong says dead goshawk carried bird flu virus
Buteo buteo Buzzard +      +OIE 2006. Disease Information vol19 no.8.
Buteo lagopus Rough-legged buzzard +      +ProMed 20060510.1341 AVIAN INFLUENZA - WORLDWIDE (108): DENMARK, GERMANY
Circus aeruginosus Western marsh harrier +      +11/04/2011: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Israel, (Immediate notification)
Falco cherrug Saker falcon  +     +ProMed 20060130.0299
Falco peregrinus Peregrine falcon ++     +OIE 2004 Disease Infromation Vol.17-no.5; Hong Kong Final Report 7/30/03
Falco sparverius American kestrel      + +Hall et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e7555.
Falco tinnunculus Common kestrel +      +Sham Shui Po dead bird H5N1 positive
Gyps sp? "wild vulture" +      +OIE Disease Information vol 19 no 11. AVIAN INFLUENZA IN NIGERIA Follow-up report No. 4
Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Grey-headed fish-eagle  +     +FAO AIDE report #16
Milvus sp. Kite +      -Manin & Irza, ARRIAH, 2007. Pers. Comm.
Necrosyrtes monachus Hooded vulture +      +Ducatez et al., 2007. EID 13:611-613.
Spilornis cheela Serpent eagle  +     +FAO AIDE report #16
Spizaetus cirrhatus Changeabe hawk eagle  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Spizaetus nipalensis Crested hawk-eagle +      -van Borm et al., 2005, EID 11:702-705.
Spizaetus nipalensis orientalis Mountain/Hodgson's hawk eagle +      +H5N1 kills rare eagle near Japan bird flu sites
Order: Galliformes
Alectoris chukar Chukar partridge      + +Perkin and Swayne, 2001. Vet Pathol 38:149-164.
Colinus virginianus Bobwhite quail      + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Coturnix coturnix Quail    + + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Gallus domesticus Domestic chicken    + + +Subbarao et.al. 1998. Science 279:393-396.
Lophura leucomelanos Kalij pheasant +      +Keawcharoen et al., 2005. A. Virol 49:277-280.
Meleagris gallopavo Turkey    + + +Perkin and Swayne, 2001. Vet Pathol 38:149-164.
Numida meleagris Pearl guineafowl    + + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003
Pavo cristatus Peacock  +     +Danish Tests Reveal H5N1 Virus In Poultry
Pavo cristatus albus White Indian peafowl +      +Keawcharoen et al., 2005, Pers. Comm.
Phasianus colchicus Ring-necked pheasant      + +Perkin and Swayne, 2001. Vet Pathol 38:149-164.
Order: Gruiformes
Chlamydotis undulata Houbara bustard +      +Moone et al., 2008. J Gen Virol 89:2691-2697.
Fulica atra Coot +      -OIE Mission to Russia 2005
Gallicrex cinera Watercock    +    Amonsin et al., 2008. Emerg Infect Dis 14:1739.
Gallinula chloropus Common moorhen +  +   +ProMED 20051130.3460, Amonsin et al., 2008. Emerg Infect Dis 14:1739.
Grus monacha Hooded crane +      +22/12/2010: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Japan, (Follow-up report No. 1)
Porphyrio porphyrio Sultan (Purple swamphen) +      +OIE 2006. Disease Information vol19 no.8.
Rallina fasciata Brown (red-legged) crake +      +Xinhua News 1/11/06
Order: Passeriformes
Acridotheres cristatellus Crested mynah  ?     -2 more birds H5N1-positive
Acridotheres grandis Great myna/white vented myna +      -Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Alauda arvensis Eurasian skylark +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Alcippe morrisonia Grey-cheeked fulvetta +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Carpodacus mexicanus House finch      + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Copsychus saularis Oriental magpie robin +      +Oriental Magpie Robin tests H5N1 positive.
Corvus cornix Hooded crow +      +Manin & Irza, ARRIAH, 2007. Pers. Comm.
Corvus corone Carrion crow +      ?Rappole and Hubalek, 2006. Emerg Inf Dis 12:1486-1492.
Corvus frugilegsu Rook +      ?Influenza A virus (A/rook/Rostov-on-Don/26/2007(H5N1)) segment 4 hemagglutinin (HA) gene, complete cds.
Corvus macrorhynchos Jungle or Large billed crow ++     +Mase et.al., 2005, Report of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection Route Elucidation Team, June 30, 2004.
Corvus monedula Jackdaw +      +Manin & Irza, ARRIAH, 2007. Pers. Comm.
Corvus splendens House crow +      +Keawcharoen et al., 2005. A Virol 49:277-280.
Dicrurus macrocercus Black drongo +      ?ProMED 20041214.3303
Gracula religiosa Hill mynah  +     +ProMED 20051021.3075; 20051022.3085.
Gracupica contra Asian pied starling/Pied myna +      -Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Gracupica contra Asian pied starling/Pied myna +      -Siengsanan-Lamont et al., 2010. Vet Micro. In Press.
Hirundo rustica Barn swallow +      +Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Hong Kong (P.R. China) (Immediate notification:08/04/2010)
Hypsipetes leucocephalus Madagascar bulbul +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Lanius schach Long-tailed shrike +      +Bird tests positive for H5N1
Leiothrix argentauris Silver-eared mesia +      +Dead birds H5N1-positive
Leiothrix lutea Red-billed leiothrix  +     +ProMED 20051021.3075; 20051022.3085.
Leucosticte nemoricola Plain mountain finch +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Lonchura atricapilla Chestnut munia +      +Birds test positive for H5N1
Lonchura punctulata Scaly-breasted munia +      ?ProMED 20041213.3303
Lonchura sp. Munia +      +OIE 3/20/06
Lonchura striata White-rumped munia +      +OIE 3/20/06
Oriolus chinensis chinensis Black-naped oriole  +     +ProMED 20051021.3075; 20051022.3085.
Parus dauma Green-backed tit +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Passer domesticus House sparrow  +   + -Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Passer montanus Eurasian tree-sparrow +      -Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Petronia petronia Rock petronia +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Pica pica sericea Common magpie +      +Kwon et al., 2005. J Wildl Dis 41:618-623.
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax Red-billed chough ?      ?07/02/2010: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, China (People's Rep. of), (Immediate notification)
Sturnus sericeus Red-billed starling ?      +Dead starling tests positive for H5N1 in HK
Sturnus sturninus Daurian starling ?      +Bird tested positive for bird flu in Hong Kong
Sturnus vulgaris European starling +    + -Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24, Manin & Irza, ARRIAH, 2007. Pers. Comm.
Taeniopygia guttata Zebra finch      + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Turdus merula Blackbird +      ?Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza-H5N1. Recent developments in the EU
Urocissa erythrorhyncha Blue magpie  ?     +Blue Magpie tested for avian flu
Yuhina diademata White-collared yuhina +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Zoothera dauma Scaly thrush +      ?Kuo et al., 2009. PLoS One 4:e6926.
Zosterops japonicus Japanese white-eye  ?     +Japanese White-eye tested for avian flu
Order: Pelecaniformes
Pelicanus sp. Pelican +      +Manin & Irza, ARRIAH, 2007. Pers. Comm.
Phalacrocorax carbo Great cormorant +      +OIE 2005, Disease Information Vol.18-no.21
Phalacrocorax niger Little cormorant +      ?ProMED 20041214.3303
Platalea leucorodia Eurasian spoonbill ?      ?06/28/2010: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Russia, (Follow-up report No. 1)
Order: Phoenicopteriformes
Phoenicopterus ruber Greater flamingo ++     +Ellis et al. 2004, Avian Pathol 33:492-505.
Order: Podicipediformes
Podiceps cristatus Great crested grebe +      +Lvov et al., 2006. Vopr Virusol 51:11-14.
Podicepts nigricollis Black-necked Grebe +      +H5N1 bird flu found in dead wild bird in Germany
Tachybaptus ruficollis Little grebe +      +OIE Dis Info v19 #17
Order: Psittaciformes
Melopsittacus undulatus Budgerigar      + +Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Order: Strigiformes
Bubo bubo Eurasian eagle owl +      +Rinder et al., 2007. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:279-282.
Bubo nipalensis Spot-bellied eagle-owl  +     +FAO AIDE report #16
Ketupa ketupu Buffy fish owl  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Ketupa zeylonensis Brown fish owl  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Strix seloputo Spotted wood owl  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Strix uralensis Ural owl +      +24/02/2011: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Japan, (Follow-up report No. 6)
Tyto alba Barn owl  +     +Desvaux et al., 2009. Emerg Inf Dis 15:475-478.
Order: Struthioniformes
Dromaius novaehollandiae Emu  +   + -Perkins and Swayne, 2003. Vet Pathol 40:14-24.
Struthio camelus Ostrich ++     +Influenza A virus (A/ostrich/HeNan/14/2002(H5N1)) nucleoprotein (NP) gene, partial cds.

Chart Bibliography:

Chen, H., Smith, G.J.D., Zhang, S.Y., Oin, K., Wang, J., Li. K.S., Webster, R.G., Peiris, J.S.M., and Guan, Y. 2005, H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl: Nature online, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature03974.html, accessed 07/06/05

Chen, H., Deng, G., Li, Z., Tian, G., Li, Y., Jiao, P., Zhang, L., Liu, Z., Webster, R.G., and Yu, K., 2004, The evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in ducks in southern China: PUBMED online, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=15235128, accessed 06/20/05.

Ellis, T.M., Bousfield, R.B., Bisset, L.A., Dyrting, K.C., Luk, G., Tsim, S.T., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Webster, R.G., Guan, Y., and Peiris, J.S. 2004, Avian Pathology v.33(5), p.492-505.

Govorkava, E.A., Rehg, J.E., Krauss, S., Yen, H., Guan, Y., Peiris, M., Nguyen, T.D., Hanh, T.H., Puthavanthana, P., Long, H.T., Buranathai, C., Lim, W., Webster, R.G., and Hoffman, E. 2004, Lethality to ferrets of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and poultry in 2004: Journal of Virology online, http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/79/4/2191, accessed 06/21/05.

Guan, Y., Peiris, M., Kong, K.F., Dyrting, K.C., Ellis, T.M., Sit, T., Zhang, L.J., and Shortridge, K.F. 2001. H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from geese in Southeastern China: Evidence for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission to ducks: Virology v.292, pg. 16-23.

Keawcharoen, J., Oraveerakul, K., Kuiken, T., Fouchier, R., Amonsin, A., Payungporn, S., Noppornpanth, S., Wattanodorn, S., Theamboonlers, A., Tantilertcharoen, R., Pattanarangsan, R., Arya, N., Ratanakorn, P., Osterhaus, A., and Poovorawan, Y. 2004, Avian influenza H5N1 in tigers and leopards: Center for Disease Control (CDC) online, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no12/04-0759.htm, accessed 06/21/05.

Kuiken, T., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Van Amerongen, G., and Osterhaus, A. 2003, Pathology of human influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in cynomologus macaques (Macaca fascicularis): Veterinary Pathology online, http://www.vetpathology.org/cgi/content/short/40/3/304, accessed 06/21/05.

Kuiken, T., Rimmelzwaan, G., van Riel, D., van Amerongen, G., Baars, M., Fouchier, R., and Osterhaus, A. 2004: Avian H5N1 influenza in cats: PUBMED and Science online, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15345779&dopt=Abstract, accessed 06/20/05.

Liu, J., Xiao, H., Lei, F., Zhu, Q., Qin, K., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., Zhao, D., Wang, G., Feng, Y., Ma, J., Liu, W., Wang, J., and Gao, F. 2005, Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds: Science online, www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1115273/DC1, accessed 07/11/05.
*Zhang, Xiaowei and Zhang, Xinglin

Mase, M., Tsukamoto, K., Imada, T., Imai, K., Tanimura, N., Nakamura, K., Yamamoto, Y., Hitomi, T., Kira, T., Nakai, T., Kiso, M., Horimoto, T., Kawaoka, Y., and Yamaguchi, S. 2005. Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated during the 2003-2004 influenza outbreaks in Japan: Virology v.332 pg.167-176.

Perkins, L.E.L, and Swayne, D.E. 2002, Pathogenicity of a Hong Kong origin H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus for emus, geese, ducks and pigeons: Avian Diseases v.46, pg.53-63.

Perkins, L.E.L., and Swayne, D.E. 2003, Comparative susceptibility of selected avian and mammalian species to Hong Kong-origin H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza virus: Avian Diseases v.47, pg.956-967.

Thanawongnuwech, R., Amonsin, A., Tantilertcharoen, R., Damrongwatanapokin, S., Theamboonlers, A., Payungporn, S., et al.2005, Probable tiger-to-tiger transmission of avian influenza H5N1: Emerging Infectious Diseases online, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no05/05-0007.htm, accessed 06/20/05.

1. Report of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Infection Route Elucidation Team, Food Safety and Consumer Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Tokyo, Japan. June 30, 2004.

Kwon YK, Joh SJ, Kim MC, Lee YJ, Choi JG, Lee EK, Wee SH, Sung HW, Kwon JH, Kang MI, and Kim JH. 2005, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Magpies (Pica pica sericea) in South Korea: J Wildl Dis. v.41, pg618-23.

ProMED 20051021.3075; 20051022.3085.

FAO/AIDE/News Update on the Avian Influenza Situation (As of 5/11/2005)-Issue no. 35.

 

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America home page. FirstGov button U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Contact Form
Page Last Modified: May 21, 2013