National Wildlife Health Center

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Chronic Wasting Disease - Bibliography


  1. International Conference on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, immunology, diagnosis/prion protein: biology, pathology, genetics, detection/scrapie: diagnosis/lab animals/sheep/goats/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0280
    Notes: subject listings for starred items in proceedings
  2. (2002). Key recommendations on FMD and other infectious diseases. Veterinary Record 151, 98-99.
    Keywords: disease modeling/management
    Call Number: CWD0281
  3. Mad deer in Canadian wild? Trends in Microbiology 9[7], 312. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0147
    Notes: Brief article reports the first case of chronic wasting disease in a wild animal in Canada. A hunter turned in the mule deer in Saskatchewan and it was found to have the disease. Reports Government officials have increased proactive measures including more hunting in the affected area and outlawing of the feeding of deer.
  4. Aguzzi, A (2003). Prion Diseases: Cannibals and Garbage Piles. Nature 423, 127-129.
    Call Number: CWD0344
  5. Almond, J. W. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. British Medical Bulletin. 54[3], 749-759. 1998.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, human risk/human prion disease: new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0278
  6. Alpers, M. (1979). Epidemiology and ecology of kuru. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 67-90. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: kuru
    Call Number: CWD0096
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  7. American Veterinary Medical Association (2003). Emerging and exotic diseases of animals. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 23, 381-382.
    Call Number: CWD0372
  8. Arrow, M. (1995). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) suspect cases carcass disposal. The state veterinary journal 5, 3-4.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: control/prevention, Great Britain epidemic, cattle
    Call Number: CWD0231
  9. Badiola, JJ, Monleon, E, Monzon, M, and et al (2002). Description of the first cases of BSE in Spain. Veterinary Record 151, 509-510.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: case discussion
    Call Number: CWD0351
    Notes: A BSE case-study that involved 3536 cattle. Three of the cattle were found to have the characteristics of BSE. Discussion focuses on the diagnostic techniques and their findings.
  10. Bahmanyar, S, Williams, ES, and et al. Amyloid plaques in spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer. Journal-of-Comparative-Pathology 95[1], 1-5; 14 ref. 1985.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/prion protein: pathology/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0033
    Notes: Describes the histological evaluation of the brain and spinal cord tissue from 21 mule deer clinically affected with CWD and 16 mule deer not similarly affected for the presence of amyloid plaques. Correlates the presence of amyloid plaques with the age of animal. Photo micrographies of thin-stained sections of brain tissue are included. Compares presence of amyloid plaques in chronic wasting disease with other slow transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie, kuru, mink encephalopathies, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
  11. Baker, H., Ridley, R., Wells, G., and Ironside, J. Spontaneous spongiform encephalopathy in a monkey. Lancet 348, 955-956. 1996.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0043
  12. Ball, K. (2002). Chronic Wasting Disease in a Rocky Mountain Elk. Canadian Veterinary Journal 43, 880-882.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Case Discussion, Elk
    Call Number: CWD0301
    Notes: A case history of a Rocky Mountain elk that was diagnosed with CWD. The clinical, gross necropsy, histological findings are highlighted. In addition, the author outlines known generalities about the disease, including clinical symptoms and common hematological, biochemical and histological abnormalities.
  13. Baringer, J., Wong, J., Klassen, T., and Prusiner, S. (1979). Further observations on the neuropathology of experimental scrapie in mouse and hamster. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 111-121. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0114
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  14. Baron, T., Belli, P., Madec, J., Moutou, F., Vitaud, C., and Savey, M. Spongiform encephalopathy in an imported cheetah in France. Veterinary Record 141, 270-271. 1997.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0010
  15. Bartz JC, Marsh RF, McKenzie DI, and Aiken JM. The host range of chronic wasting disease is altered on passage in ferrets. Virology-New-York 251[2], 297-301; 13 ref. 1998.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: transmission/prion protein: species barrier/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0150
    Notes: Studies the susceptibility of ferrets and hamsters to CWD using intracerebral inoculations of CWD positive brain homogenate. Successful transmission was accomplished in the ferrets. Next, hamsters were inoculated with ferret-passaged CWD. Twenty-four hamsters were inoculated and 3 developed neurological disorders.
  16. Beekes, M., Baldauf, E., and Cabens, S. (1995). Western Blot Mapping of Disease-Specific Amyloid in Various Animal Species and Humans with Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Using a High-Yield Purification Method. Journal of General Virology 76, 2567-2576.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/prion protein: pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0218
  17. Beekes, M., McBride, P., and Baldauf, E. Cerebral targeting indicates vagal spread of infection in hamsters fed with scrapie. Journal of General Virology 79, 601-607. 1998.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/prion protein: detection/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0072
  18. Beiglbock C. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids in North America -- a review. Wiener-Tierarztliche-Monatsschrift 88[6], 147-152; 30 ref. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0135
    Notes: Article in German summarizes clinical course, pathology, etiology, epidemiology and diagnosis of chronic wasting disease. Discusses strategies for controlling and preventing CWD and discusses the significance of CWD.
  19. Belay, E. D., Gambetti, P., Schonberger, L. B., Parchi, P., Lyon, D. R., Capellari, S., McQuiston, J. H., Bradley, K., Dowdle, G., Crutcher, J. M., and Nichols, C. R. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in unusually young patients who consumed venison. Archives of Neurology. 28[10], 1673-1678. 2001.
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD/chronic wasting disease: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0168
    Notes: Examined brain tissues of 3 young (aged 28-30) patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) in the United States who had no established CJD risks yet who consumed deer and elk meat. Describes patient history and symptoms and methods of brain tissue examination. Concludes there is no strong evidence for a causal link between young patients with CJD and chronic wasting disease.
  20. Belay, ED, Maddox, MD, and et al (2003). Monitoring the Occurrence of Emerging Forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in the United States. Neurology 60, 176-181.
    Keywords: Human Prion Diseases: CJD, new variant CJD, prevention/control; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0324
    Notes: Due to the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention has created a various surveillance methods to monitor for emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). One such method is the establishment of the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center. Physicians can use the Center’s pathology services to further investigate diagnosed cases or suspected cases of CJD or other cases of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, including chronic wasting diesease. The questionable possibility of CWD being transmitted from cattle and humans is discussed.
  21. Bellinger-Kawahara, C., Diener, T. O., McKinley, M., Groth, D., Smith, D., and Prusiner, S. (1987). Purified scrapie prions resist inactivation by procedures that hydrolyze, modify, or shear nucleic acids. Virology 160, 271-274.
    Keywords: prion protein: inactivation/scrapie: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0221
  22. Bennett, A., Birkett, C., and Bostoc, C. Molecular biology of scrapie-like agents. REVUE SCIENTIFIQUE ET TECHNIQUE OFFICE INTERNATIONAL DES EPIZOOTIES 11[2], 569-603. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, genetics/prion protein: biology, genetics/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0090
  23. Beringer, J, Hansen, L, and et al. (2003). A statewide surveillance effort for detecting chronic wasting disease in wild white-tailed deer in Missouri. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31, 873-881.
    Call Number: CWD0377
  24. Bernoulli, C., Masters, C., Gajdusek, D., Gibbs Jr., C., and Harris, J. (1979). Early clinical features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (subacute spongiform encephalopathy). In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 229-251. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD
    Call Number: CWD0101
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  25. Bishop, RC. The Economic Effects in 2002 of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in Wisconsin. Agriculture & Applied Economics : Staff Paper Series. 2002 July. University of Wisconsin - Madison.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: economical impact; Effected Species: white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0336
    Notes: Discusses author's “educated guess” about the economic impacts CWD will have on Wisconsin. His estimated cost totals are based on his experience and the statistics provided from 1996 The National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Related Recreation, published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. He concludes that the majority of the financial losses will fall on the Wisconsin hunters and not so much on the Wisconsin economy.
  26. Bodemer, W. Kaup. F. J. (2002). Basic research on BSE Transmission. Deutsches tierarztl. Wschr. 109, 338-341.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, diagnosis, human risk/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0314
    Notes: in German
  27. Bonetta, L (2002). CWD Research Increases as US Concern Grows. Nature Medicine 8, 1338.
    Call Number: CWD0335
  28. Bons, N., Mestre-Frances, N., Charnay, Y., and Tagliavini, F. Spontaneous spongiform encephalopathy in a young rhesus monkey. Lancet 348, 55. 1996.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0021
  29. Bons, N., Mestre-Frances, P., Belli, P., Cathala, F., Gajdusek, D., and Brown, P. Natural and experimental oral infection of nonhuman primates by bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96, 4046-4051. 1999.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0053
  30. Borchers, Kerstin (2002). Transmissible spongiforme encephalopathien (TSE) (Der Erreger und seine Eigenschaften). Fleischwirtschaft 7, 110-112.
    Keywords: Transmission Spongiform Encephalopathy: prion theory, genetics, diagnosis
    Call Number: CWD0264
  31. Bosque, P. J., Ryou, C., Telling, G., Peretz, D., Legname, G., DeArmond, S. J., and Prusiner, S. B. Prions in skeletal muscle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99[6], 3812-3817. 2002.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0141
    Notes: First report that prions propagate and accumulate in skeletal muscle in a region specific manner and at levels much higher than have been generally assumed. Raises the concern that humans consuming meat from prion-infected animals are at risk for infection, but notes that further investigations are necessary to account for variations in prion accumulation based on host species, a possible species barrier, and efficiency of oral transmission versus laboratory inoculations.
  32. Bosque, PJ. (2002). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Chronic Wasting Disease, Scrapie, and the Threat to Humans from Prion Disease Epizootics. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2, 488-95.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: human risk, transmission/Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: human risk, transmission/Scrapie: human risk, transmission/Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy: human risk, transmission, genetics
    Call Number: CWD0327
    Notes: Summerization about the basic biology and the clinical features of prion diseases and focuses on disease transmission and the potential threat to human health. The topics covered in the articles are basic biology of prions, interspecies transmission, animal diseases (CWD, BSE and scrapie), Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), and potential transmission of scrapie to humans. While BSE has proven to be a threat to humans in the form of vCJD, the article concludes that there is not enough information about transmission efficiency of prions to show that CWD and scrapie do not pose a threat to humans.
  33. Bradley, R. and Matthews, D. Sub-acute, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current concepts and future needs. REVUE SCIENTIFIQUE ET TECHNIQUE OFFICE INTERNATIONAL DES EPIZOOTIES 11[2], 605-634. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, prevention/control/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, transmission, diagnosis, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0091
  34. Breithaupt, H (2002). Mad Deer: The North American Version of Prion Disease. European Molecular Biology Organization 3, 1117-1119.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: general/overview, control/prevention.
    Call Number: CWD0346
    Notes: A good overview article for the layman. The different aspects of chronic wasting disease (CWD) that are discussed inculde, control procedures, detection, transmission, government funding and the relationship of CWD to other prion diseases.
  35. Brewer, MS (2001). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy - food safety implications. Adv. Food Nutrition Res. 43, 265-317.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, prevention/control, human risk/prion protein: general/overview, genetics, species barrier/human prion disease: general/overview/scrapie: general/overview/feline spongiform encephalopathy/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0228
  36. Brown. P. (1996). Environmental Causes of Human Sponiform Encephalopathy. In ' Prion Diseases'. (H. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 139-153. (Humana Press Inc. Totowa, NJ.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: general/overview, CJD/spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0289
  37. Brown, P. and Gajdusek, D. (1991). Survival of scrapie virus after 3 years' interment. Lancet 337, 269-270.
    Keywords: scrapie: transmission/spongiform encephalopathy: transmission
    Call Number: CWD0212
  38. Brown, P., Will, R. G., Bradley, R., Asher, D. M., and Detwiler, L. (2001). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Background, Evolution, and Current Concerns. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7, 6-16.
    Keywords: human prion disease: prevention/control, new variant CJD/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0245
  39. Brown, Paul (2001). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. British Medical Journal 322, 841-844.
    Keywords: human prion disease: new variant CJD/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0244
  40. Bruce, M., Chree, A., McConnell, L., Foster, J., Pearson, G., and Fraser, H. Transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie to mice: strain variation and species barrier. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 343[1306], 405-411. 1994.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, transmission/scrapie: etiology, transmission/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier/prion protein: species barrier/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0054
  41. Bruce, M. and Dickinson, A. (1979). Biological stability of different classes of scrapie agent. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 71-86. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, genetics/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0112
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  42. Bruce, M., Will, R., Ironside, J., McConnell, I., Drummond, D., Suttie, A., McCardle, L., Chree, A., Hope, J., Birkett, C., Cousens, S., Fraser, H., and Bostock, C. Transmission to mice indicate that 'new variant' CJD is cause by the BSE agent. Nature 389, 498-501. 2 October 1997.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk/human prion disease: new variant CJD/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0002
  43. Bruce, M. E., Chree, A., Williams, E. S., and Fraser, H. Perivascular PrP Amyloid in the Brains of Mice Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease. Brain Pathology 10, 662-663. 2000.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0186
    Notes: Poster session on neurodegeneration to a panel of mouse strains to compare with similar transmissions o TSE's from other species. Reports the prominent neuropatholial feature was the accumulation of from protein (PnP) in the form of expensive perivascular anylord deposits. Comments on the absence of vascular degeneration of neurons and neuropil which is common in other TSE's. Concludes that incubation periods and neuropathology in mice infected with CWD were very different from that of mice infected with BSE, scrapie, or CJD derived isolates.
  44. Brugerepicoux, J. and Chatelain, J. Scrapie in sheep and transmissible mink encephalopathy [French]. Pathologie et Biologie. 43[2], 81-90. 1995.
    Keywords: scrapie: general/overview/spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0277
    Notes: in French
  45. Butler, D. (2002). Prion Data Suggest BSE Link to Sporadic CJD. Nature 420, 450.
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD, new variant CJD/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0283
  46. Campbell, A. (1979). The virus concept and its applicability to slow transmissible agents of disease. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 253-269. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, virus/viroid theory
    Call Number: CWD0124
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  47. Cardone, F and Pocchiari, M (2001). A role for complement in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Nature Medicine 7, 410-411.
    Call Number: CWD0375
  48. Cardone, F and Pocchiari, M (2001). A Role for Complement in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopthies. Nature Medicine 7, 410-411.
    Call Number: CWD0337
  49. Casolari, Antonio (1998). Heat resistance of prions and food processing. Food Microbiology 15, 59-63.
    Keywords: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: control/prevention, Scrapie: control/prevention
    Call Number: CWD0219
  50. Caughey, B., Raymong, G., Callahan, M., Wong, C., Baron, G., and Xiong, L. (2001). Interactions and conversions of prion protein isoforms. In 'Prion Proteins'. (Ed. B. Caughey.) pp. 139-169. (Academic Press: San Diego.)
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, genetics, species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0172
    Notes: Focuses on the structure and role of PrPres in propagation of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) agents, the transmissibility of TSE agents between species, and interactions with PrPsen. Discusses TSE strains and development of therapies. Includes small section on Chronic Wasting Disease that discusses findings, which indicate PrPcwd induces conversions of cervid PrPsen to protease resistant state but that there is a less efficient conversion of human, bovine, or ovine, PrPsen to PrPcwd.
  51. Caughey, B., Kocisko, D. A., Priola, S. A., Raymon, G. J., Race, R. E., Bessen, R. A., Lansbury, P. T., and Chesebro, B. (1996). Methods for Studying Prion Protein (PrP) Metabolism and the Formation of Protease-Resistant PrP in Cell Culture and Cell-Free Systems. In 'Methods in Molecular Medicine: Prion Diseases'. (H. F. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 285-299. (Humana Press, Inc.: Totowa, New Jersey.)
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0296
  52. Cerenakova, Larisa Rohwer Robert Williams Elizabeth S. Brown Paul Gajdusek Carleton D. (1997). High Sequence Homology of the PrP gene in Mule Deer and Rocky Mountain Elk. The Lancet 350, 219-220.
    Call Number: CWD0243
  53. Cervenakova L, Rohwer R, Williams ES, Brown P, and Gajdusek DC. High sequence homology of the PrP gene in mule deer and Rocky Mountain elk. Lancet-British-edition 350[9072], 219-220; 5 ref. 1997.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics/mule deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0022
  54. Champion, H. J., Gloster, J., Mason, I. S., Brown, R. J., Donaldson, A. I., Ryall, D. B., and Garland, A. J. M. (2002). Investigation of the possible spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus by the burning of animal carcasses on open pyres. The Veterinary Record 151, 593-600.
    Keywords: disease modeling/management
    Call Number: CWD0261
  55. Chesebro, B. BSE and prions: Uncertainties about the agent. Science 279, 42-43. 1998.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, transmission/prion protein: biology
    Call Number: CWD0052
  56. Clarke, M. (1979). Infection of cell cultures with scrapie agent. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 225-233. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0122
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  57. Cohen, C. H., Cesbron, J. Y., and Valleron, A. J. (1999). Cost effectiveness of bovine spongiform encephalopathy screening. Veterinary Record 144, 703-706.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0225
  58. Collinge, J. Prion diseases of humans and animals: their causes and molecular basis [review]. Annual Review of Neuroscience. 24, 519-550. 2001.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, etiology/prion protein: biology, species barrier/human prion disease: general/overview/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0165
    Notes: Recent in depth article discusses prions and the diseases in humans and animals caused by them. Includes history, information about human prion diseases, the structural properties of prion proteins, normal cellular function of PrP, prion strain diversity, prion transmission barriers, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and risks to public health, and prion neurodegeneration and potential therapeutic approaches.
  59. Collinge, J. and Palmer, M. Molecular genetics of human prion diseases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 343[1306], 371-378. 1994.
    Keywords: human prion disease: general/overview/prion protein: genetics
    Call Number: CWD0051
  60. Prions: unconventional agents. Collins, CH and Kennedy, DA. Laboratory-aquired infections: history, incidence, causes and prevention. 1999. Oxford, Boston, Butterworth Heinemann.
    Keywords: Prion Protein: transmission, inactivation; Sponiform Encephlopathy
    Call Number: CWD0350
    Notes: A brief chapter discusses prions, transmissible sponiform encephlopathies diseases, the laboratory setting, and the potential hazard to laboratory workers. The following topics and guidelines are covered: potential source of infection, precautions, disinfection, sterilization and waste disposal.
  61. Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock (1998). Recommendation: model program for surveillance, control, and eradication of CWD in domestic elk - minimum recommended guidelines. United States Animal Health Association, Proceeding of Annual Meeting 102, 202-203.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control/disease modeling/management/elk
    Call Number: CWD0284
    Notes: Outlines guidelines for the model program for surveillance, control and eradication of CWD in domestic elk as recommended by the Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock. The outline covers Herd Surveillance and Herd Monitoring, Herd Disposition, and Interstate and International Movement.
  62. Conner MM, McCarty CW, and Miller MW. Detection of bias in harvest-based estimates of chronic wasting disease prevalence in mule deer. Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 36[4], 691-699; 19 ref. 2000.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology/disease modeling/management/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0144
    Notes: Discusses the issue of bias in determining the proportion of chronic wasting disease infected deer harvested over time within a sampling period depending on the progression of CWD in deer population. Used data from harvested mule deer sampled in North central Colorado during fall hunting seasons 1996-1998. Concludes bias may exist especially if using one harvest season to estimate prevalence and recommend testing for bias by estimating prevalence over several time periods or using a sampling strategy to minimize bias.
  63. Corn JL and Nettles VF. Health protocol for translocation of free-ranging elk. Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 37[3], 413-426; many ref. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control/disease modeling/management/elk
    Call Number: CWD0157
    Notes: Examines elk restoration and translocation programs and the potential for introduction and establishment of infectious agents and ectoparasites. Chronic wasting disease was found to be high risk for introduction and establishment. Includes protocol to reduce risk of infection such as evaluation of health status of source populations, quarantines, physical examination and diagnostic testing, restriction on translocation of animals from certain populations and prophylactic treatment.
  64. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Task Force Report. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in the United States. 136. 2000.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, prion theory, diagnosis, human risk/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, prevention/control, human risk/human prion disease: general/overview/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/scrapie: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0097
    Notes: Task Force Report No. 136, October 2000. Published by the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. ISBN, 1-887383-18-2
  65. Cross, D and Burmester, JK (2002). A Genetic Approach to the Problem of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin. WMJ 101, 25-27.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Control/Prevention
    Call Number: CWD0320
    Notes: 320) This editorial argues that more research needs to done on the genetic predisposition in deer and humans to prion diseases. In the case of CWD, this knowledge could be used to select and breed for genetic resistance to the disease, similar to the breeding management program used to control scrapies.
  66. Cunningham, A. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and British Zoos. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 11, 605-634. 1991.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, Great Britain epidemic/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0049
  67. Cunningham, A., Wells, G., Scott, A., Kirkwood, J., and Barnet, J. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Veterinary Record 132, 68. 1993.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0050
  68. dahlanuddin, Dam Van Tien, Liang, JB, and Adams, DB (2003). An exploration of risk factors for bovine spongifrom encephalopathy in ruminant production systems in the tropics. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 271-281.
    Call Number: CWD0362
  69. Dalsgaard, NJ. Prion Disease. An overview. APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 10, 3-13. 2002.
    Keywords: Prion Protein: General/Overview, Spongiform Encephalopathy, Bovine Sponiform Encephalopathy
    Call Number: CWD0315
    Notes: Review article that discusses the historical and philosophical views, in addition to epidemiology, genetics and transmissibility of prion diseases in both man and animals.
  70. Dalton, R. and Check, E. (2002). Prion Research Stepped Up as Fear Grows of Deer Disease . Nature 419, 236.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control, human risk
    Call Number: CWD0282
    Notes: Comments on the increase in research funding due to raising public fears towards CWD and other TSE diseases.
  71. Darbord, J. C. (1999). Inactivation of prions in daily medical practice. Biomed & Pharmacother 53, 34-38.
    Keywords: prion protein: inactivation/spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0259
  72. Detwiler, L. Scrapie. Revue scientifique et technique office international des epizooties 11[2], 491-537. 1992.
    Keywords: scrapie: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0083
  73. Detwiler, L., Rubenstein, R., and Williams, E. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Brown, C. and Bolin, C. Emerging diseases of animals. 131-159. 2000. Washington D.C., ASM Press.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/scrapie: general/overview/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, human risk/chronic wasting disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0237
    Notes: Describes characteristics of nine variations of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including chronic wasting disease. Briefly reviews epidemiology, clinical signs, prevention and control.
  74. Detwiler, L. A. and Rubenstein, R. (1998). Foreign animal disease review: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. In 'Foreign Animal Disease Report'. (Ed. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. United States Department of Agriculture.) pp. 10-25. Washington D.C.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, etiology, viral/viroid theory, prion theory/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, prevention/control, human risk/human prion disease: general/overview, new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0146
    Notes: Contains brief mention of chronic wasting disease and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies but the major emphasis is on bovine spongiform encephalopathy.
  75. Detwiler, LA and Baylis, M (2003). The epidemiology of scrapie. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 121-143.
    Call Number: CWD0355
  76. Dickinson, A. (1976). Scrapie in sheep and goats. In 'Slow virus diseases of animals and man'. (Ed. R. Kimberlin.) pp. 209-241. (North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam.)
    Keywords: scrapie: general/overview/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0094
    Notes: chapter 10
  77. Dickinson, A. and Outram G. (1979). The scrapie replication-site hypothesis and its implications for pathogenesis. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 13-31. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, immunology
    Call Number: CWD0110
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  78. Didinger-Stoltenburg, Gisela (2002). Prion Diseases Disease CJD-Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies- TSE. FleischWirtschaft 7, 107-112.
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD, new variant CJD/spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, prion theory
    Call Number: CWD0310
  79. Doherr, M. G., Heim, D., Fatzer, R., Cohen, C. H., Vandevelde, M., and Zurbriggen, A. (2001). Targeted screening of high-risk cattle populations for BSE to augment mandatory reporting of clinical aspects. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 51, 3-16.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0227
  80. Donnelly, C., Ferguson, N., Ghani, A., Wilesmith, J., and Anderson, R. Analysis of dam-calf pairs of BSE cases: Confirmation of a maternal risk enhancement. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264[1388], 1647-1656. 1997.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission/disease modeling/management/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0047
    Notes: available in Jstor
  81. Donnelly, C., Ghani, A., Ferguson, N., and Anderson, R. Recent trends in the BSE epidemic. Nature 389, 903. 1997.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic/human prion disease: new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0001
  82. Dormont, D. (1999). Agents that cause transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathies. Biomed & Pharmacother 53, 3-8.
    Keywords: Spongiform Encephalopathy: prion theory, pathology, immunology
    Call Number: CWD0211
  83. Dormont, D (2002). Prion Diseases: Pathogenesis and Public Health Concerns. FEBS Letters 529, 17-21.
    Call Number: CWD0322
    Notes: Focuses on the prion that causes TSE diseases. The key areas addressed about the prion are background information, its biological role and its pathogenesis, and its potential threat to public health.
  84. Dubois-Dalcq, M., Rodriguez, M., and Reese, T. (1979). Structural changes in the membrane of cells infected with scrapie and other neurotropic viruses. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 123-145. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0115
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  85. Dubois, MA, Sabatier, P, and et al (2002). Multiplicative Genetic Effects in Scrapie Disease Susceptibility. C.R. Biologies 325, 1-6.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, genetics/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0311
  86. Eckroade, R., ZuRhein, G., and Hanson, R. (1979). Experimental transmissible mink encephalopathy: Brain lesions and their sequential development in mink. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 409-449. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: pathology/mink
    Call Number: CWD0105
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  87. Eckroade, R. J., ZuRhein, G. M., and Hanson, P. Transmissible mink encephalopathy in carnivores: Clinical, light and electron microscopic studies in raccoons, skunks and ferrets. Journal of Wildlife Disease 9, 229-240. 1973.
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: transmission, clinicalsigns, pathology/wildlife/mink
    Call Number: CWD0148
  88. Emanuelson K and Cinderey R N. Chronic wasting disease in muntjac and hog deer: a neuropathy and arthropathy. Anon. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Zoological and Avian Medicine. Association of Avian Veterinarians & American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, place of publication not given. 495. 1987.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0153
  89. Enserink, M. Prion diseases - US gets tough against chronic wasting disease. Science. 294[5544], 978-979. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk
    Call Number: CWD0156
    Notes: Discusses proposals by the United States Department of Agriculture to control the spread of chronic wasting disease in farmed elk population in Colorado. Measure include a moratorium on elk movements within the state, quarantining infected herds, implementing an active surveillance program, paying farmers for diseased animals, destruction of carcasses and decontamination of farms.
  90. Enserink, M (2001). U.S. Gets Tough Against Chronic Wasting Disease. Science 294, 978-979.
    Call Number: CWD0339
  91. Environment Agency (1997). Risks from BSE via Environmental Pathways: A Summary of Risk Assessment Studies Carried out by the Environment Agency .
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control, human risk
    Call Number: CWD0255
  92. Farquhar, C., Somerville, R., and Bruce, M. Straining the prion hypothesis. Nature 391, 345-346. 1998.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, prion theory/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0003
  93. Fennessy, Peter. Chronic wasting disease of cervids. Proceedings of a Deer Course for Veterinarians 14, 207-212. 1997.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0152
    Notes: Reviews general information about chronic wasting disease including history, epidemiology, prevention and control, clinical signs and diagnosis. Discusses experimental transmission and the cross species infectivity of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
  94. Fleetwood, A. and Furley, C. Spongiform encephalopathy in a eland. The Veterinary Record 126, 408-409. 1990.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0046
  95. Franklin, M., Burke, C. A., and Wood, D. M. (2002). CWD Crisis Expands. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30, 951-955.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control/disease modeling/management
    Call Number: CWD0241
    Notes: Disscusses briefly legislative and regulation proposals made both at the federal and state level to financially support research and to control the spread of CWD. Efforts made by various conservation organizations are also mentioned.
  96. Fraser, H. Diversity in the neuropathology of scrapie-like diseases in animals. British Medical Bulletin. 49[4], 792-809. 1993.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: pathology
    Call Number: CWD0162
    Notes: Compares neuropathology and central nervous system (CNS) changes resulting from naturally-occurring and experimentally induced scrapie-like diseases including scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease and transmissible mink encephalopathy. Includes description of symmetrical and asymmetrical lesions, amyloid plaques, neruoanatomical projection pathways, reactive and secondary pathology, and ultrastructure of scrapie neuropathology.
  97. Fraser, H. (1979). Neuropathology of scrapie: the precision of the lesions and their diversity. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 387-406. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: pathology
    Call Number: CWD0107
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  98. Fraser, H. (1976). The pathology of natural and experimental scrapie. In 'Slow virus diseases of animals and man'. (Ed. R. Kimberlin.) pp. 267-305. (North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam.)
    Keywords: scrapie: pathology/prion protein: pathology/sheep/goats/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0092
    Notes: chapter 12, two copies
  99. Gale, P., Young, C., Stanfield, G., and Oakes, D. (1998). Development of a risk assessment for BSE in the aquatic environment. Journal of Applied Microbiology 84, 467-477.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, human risk/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0254
  100. Gasteiner, J. (2001). Chronic Wasting Disease (Ubersicht zur BSE). Viehwirtschaftliche Fachtagung 2, 93-98.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/human prion disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0333
    Notes: in German
  101. Geist, V. Wildlife conservation as wealth. Nature. 368[6471], 491-492. 1994.
    Keywords: disease modeling/management/chronic wasting disease: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0166
  102. Ghetti, B. and Piccardo, P. Prion Diseases . 23[1]. 2003 March. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders .
    Call Number: CWD0368
  103. Gibbs Jr., C., Gajdusek, D., and Amyx, H. (1979). Strain variation in the viruses of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 87-110. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: genetics/human prion disease: kuru, CJD
    Call Number: CWD0113
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  104. Gizzi, G, van Raamsdonk, LWD, Baeten, V, and et al (2003). An overview of tests for animal tissues in feeds applied in response to public health concerns regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 311-331.
    Call Number: CWD0364
  105. Godon KAH, Honstead J, and Hollinger Godon KA. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in food animals. Human food safety and animal feed safety concerns for veterinarians. Veterinary-Clinics-of-North-America,-Food-Animal-Practice 14[1], 49-70; 74 ref. 1998.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, viral/viroid theory, prion theory, human risk/scrapie: general/overview/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, human risk/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview/chronic wasting disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0164
    Notes: Emerging disease perspective of potential of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). Includes discussion about oral transmissibility, causative agent theories, agent inactivation and disinfection of TSE’s. Discusses cause, epizootiology, clinical signs, pathogenesis and diagnosis, prevention and control of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathies. Includes brief discussion about chronic wasting disease and transmissible mink encephalopathies and a brief discussion food safety.
  106. Gould, D., Voss, J., Miller, M., and et.al. (2003). Survey of Cattle in Northeast Colorado for Evidence of Chronic Wasting Disease: Geographical and High-Risk Targeted Sample . Journal Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 15, 274-277.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: transmission/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier cattle
    Call Number: CWD0306
    Notes: A geographically targeted survey was conducted in Northeastern Colorado to determine if adult cattle rooming in areas recognized as chronic wasting disease (CWD) endemic regions, were susceptible to contracting the disease. Brain tissue samples from culled cattle were examined microscopically and immunohistochemically for evidence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. The study results indicate that the possibility of CWD spreading from infected deer to cattle under natural range conditions is unlikely.
  107. Greig, J. Scrapie: Observations on the transmission of the disease by mediate contact. Veterinary Journal 96, 203-206. 1940.
    Keywords: scrapie: transmission/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0048
  108. Gross JE and Miller MW. Chronic wasting disease in mule deer: disease dynamics and control. Journal-of-Wildlife-Management 65[2], 205-215; 33 ref. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/disease modeling/management/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0069
    Notes: Describes an individual-based epidemic model of CWD in mule deer which will serve as the basis for a full spatial model that will be used to evaluate large-scale control measures for limiting distribution of CWD in free ranging populations. Model based on observations of cervids infected with CWD in research facilities and in the wild. Transmission as lateral transmission is judged most likely. CWD agent presumed shed in saliva, feces, urine, and/or placental tissues and fluids.
  109. Guiroy, D., Liberski, P., Williams, E., and Gajdusek, D. Electron microscopic findings in brain of rocky mountain elk with chronic wasting disease. Folia Neuropathology 32[3], 171-173. 1994.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/elk
    Call Number: CWD0084
    Notes: Brain tissue from 2 Rocky Mountain elk affected with CWD was analyzed using electron microscopy. Notes the similarities between neuropathological findings between CWD-affected elk and CWD-affected deer at the light microscopic and unltrastructural level. A variation by species was noted in regard to intraneuronal vacuolation spongiform change and presence of amyloid plaques. Includes EM slides of vacuoles, plaque and inclusion bodies.
  110. Guiroy, D. C., Liberski, P. P., Williams, E. S., and Gajdusek, D. C. Ultrastructure Findings in Brain of Rocky Mountain Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease . Clinical Neuropathology
    118th Meeting of the American Neurological Association , 247. 1993.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/elk
    Call Number: CWD0187
    Notes: A brief abstract which describes the neuropathological and ultrastructural findings in captive mule deer and elk affected by CWD. Connects these findings to BSE, scrapie, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
  111. Guiroy, D. C., Williams, E. S., and Gajdusek, D. C. Neurodegenerative and immunocytochemical changes of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement 16, 211. 1992.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0133
    Notes: Short article describing the neuropathological changes in brain tissues from 9 CWD-affected mule deer and 2 neurologically normal mule deer. Describes a variety of neurodegenerative changes found which corroborates that CWD belongs to the subacute spongiform encephalopathies.
  112. Guiroy, D. C., Williams, E. S., Liberski, P. P., and Gajdusek, D. C. (1993). Ultrastructural neuropthology of chronic wasting disease a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and Rocky Mountain elk. 38th Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Neuropathologie and Neuroanatomie 12, 247.
    Keywords: Spongiform Encephalopathy: Pathology, Mule Deer, Elk
    Call Number: CWD0299
    Notes: Conference abstract highlighting the ultrastructural neuropathology findings in both mule deer and Rocky Mountain elk that were diagnosed with CWD. In the Rocky Mountain elk the results are noted as being similar to that found in bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapies, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
  113. Guiroy D C, Williams E S, Yanagihara R, and Gajdusek D C. Immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (PrP27-30) in chronic wasting disease of Rocky Mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. Neuroscience letters 126[2], 195-198. 1991.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: etiology, pathology/prion protein: pathology/elk/mule deer/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0039
    Notes: Immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (PrP27-30) in brain tissue confirms that chronic wasting disease in elk and deer belongs to the subacute spongiform virus encephalopathies (transmissible cerebral amyloidoses). Presents table of immunostaining results of brain tissue sections from Rocky Mountain elk and hybrids of captured mule deer and white-tailed deer. The primary antibody was anti-scrapie amyloid, a rabbit polyclonal antibody biochemically extracted from brain tissues of hamster-adapted scrapie.
  114. Guiroy DC, Williams ES, Liberski PP, Wakayama I, Gajdusek DC, and Carleton Gajdusek D. Ultrastructural neuropathology of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer. Acta-Neuropathologica 85[4], 437-444; 31 ref. 1993.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0038
    Notes: Describes the ultrastructural neuropathological changes in the brain tissue of 1 female mule deer. Neuropathalogical findings consisted of extensive membrane-bound vacuolation, prominent astrocyte gliosis, dystrophic neurites, amyloid plaques, autophagic vacuoles, activated macrophages, spheroid structures. Includes many EM slides.
  115. Guiroy DC, Williams ES, Song KJ, Yanagihara R, and Gajdusek DC. Fibrils in brains of Rocky Mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid. Acta-Neuropathologica 86[1], 77-80; 21 ref. 1993.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/prion protein: pathology
    Call Number: CWD0151
    Notes: Discusses findings using negative-stain electron microscopy of abnormal fibrils isolated from brain tissue in CWD-infected Rocky Mountain elk. The fibrils were similar to those found in scrapie-infected hamster brain tissue. Additional findings include protein bands with relative molecular masses of 26 to 30 kilodaltons that are immunoreactive to antibodies raised against scrapie amyloid by Western immunoblotting. Results support clinical and pathological diagnosis of chronic wasting disease and its relationship to the subacute spongiform encephalopathies.
  116. Guiroy DC, Williams ES, Yanagihara R, and Gajdusek DC. Topographic distribution of scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques in chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Acta-Neuropathologica 81[5], 475-478; 18 ref. 1991.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: etiology, pathology/prion protein: detection/elk/mule deer/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0040
    Notes: First report of presence of scrapie amyloid in brain tissues of CWD-affected mule deer and of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Histochemical study used formalin-fixed brain tissues from 17 neuropathologically verified cases of CWD. Provides corroboration of theory that CWD belongs to subacute virus spongiform encephalopathy.
  117. Hadlow, W. (1996). Differing neurohistologic images of scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy, and chronic wasting disease in mule deer and elk. In 'Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: The BSE dilemma'. (Ed. C. Gibbs.) pp. 122-137. (Springer: Norwell, Massachusetts.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: pathology/scrapie: pathology/chronic wasting disease: pathology/transmissible mink encephalopathy: pathology
    Call Number: CWD0159
    Notes: In depth comparison of the variations in the degenerative and neuropathological patterns in different animals infected with scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy and chronic wasting disease. Compare diseases in terms of distribution and severity of vacuolated neuron location, gray matter and spongiform variation changes, host-specific differences, astrocytosis, degenerative lesion location, amyloid plaques and topographical distribution of degenerative changes.
  118. Hadlow, W. and Karstad, L. Transmissible encephalopathy of mink in Ontario. Canadian Veterinary Journal 9, 193-196. 1968.
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: case discussion/mink
    Call Number: CWD0037
  119. Hadlow, W., Kennedy, R., and Race, R. Natural infection of Suffold sheep with scrapie virus. Journal of Infectious Disease 146, 657-664. 1982.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, transmission/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0034
  120. Hadlow, W., Kennedy, R., Race, R., and Eklund, C. Virologic and neurohistologic findings in dairy goats affected with natural scrapie. Veterinary Pathology 17, 187-199. 1980.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, transmission, pathology/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0036
  121. Hadlow, W., Race, R., and Kennedy, R. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with transmissible mink encephalopathy virus. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 51, 135-144. 1987.
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: etiology, transmission, pathology/scrapie: etiology/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0035
  122. Hadlow, W., Race, R., Kennedy, R., and Eklund, C. (1979). Natural infection of sheep with scrapie virus. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 3-12. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0109
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  123. Haigh, JC, Mackintosh, C, and Griffin, F (2002). Viral, Parasitic and Prion Diseases of Farmed Deer and Bison. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 21, 219-248.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: General overview
    Call Number: CWD0319
    Notes: Examines a number of important viral diseases and parasites that infect farmed deer and bison. Chronic wasting disease is one of the diseases discussed in regards to transmission, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and control.
  124. Hamir, A. N., Cutlip, R. C., Miller, J. M., Williams, E. S., Stack, M. J., Miller, M. W., O'Rourke, K. I., and Chaplin, M. J. Preliminary findings on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent of mule deer to cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 13[1], 91-96. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: transmission, diagnosis, pathology /prion protein: species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0140
    Notes: 2 copies. Of 13 calves which were inoculated intracerebrally, 3 animals exhibited behavior changes and lost weight 2 years after inoculation. Microscopic lesions were not significant but all animals were positive for protease-resistant prion protein PrPres. Ten of the inoculated calves appeared to be healthy 3 years after the CWD challenge. Assumes that since intracerebral inoculation is so unnatural that the transmission of CWD to cattle by a more natural route would be more difficult or impossible to accomplish.
  125. Hamir, A. N., Miller, J. M., Cutlip, R. C., Stack, M. J., Chaplin, M. J., and Jenny, A. L. (2003). Brief Communications and Case Reports: Preliminary Observations on the Experimental Transmission of Scrapie to Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by Intracerebral Inoculation. Veterinary Pathology 40, 81-85.
    Keywords: scrapie: transmission, case discussion/chronic wasting disease: etiology/elk
    Call Number: CWD0300
  126. Hamir, Amir N., Miller, Janice M., Stack, Mick J., and Chaplin, Melanie J. (2002). Failure to detect abnormal prion protein and scrapie-associated fibrils 6 wk after intracerebral inoculation of genetically susceptible sheep with scrapie agent. The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 66 , 289-294.
    Keywords: prion protein: detection/scrapie: pathology/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0263
  127. Hamir, AN and Miller, JM (2003). Preliminary Observations on the Experimental Transmission of Scrapie to Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by Intracerebral Inoculation. Vet. Pathol. 40, 81-85.
    Call Number: CWD0307
  128. Hamir, AN., Miller, JM., and et al (2003). Experimental inoculation of scrapie and chronic wasting disease agents in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Veterinary Record 153, 121-123.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: transmission; Scrapie: transmission
    Call Number: CWD0366
    Notes: Study conducted to determine if raccoons could be infected with scrapie and CWD by intracerebal transmission. Selected central nervous system tissues were collected to test for the presence of PrPres .The findings suggest that with further studies raccoons could be used as a laboratory model to differentiate between the three animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy forms (scrapie, transmissible mink encephalopathy and CWD) that are present in the United States. This is important because currently only the moose model is usable as a biological model.
  129. Hartsough, G. and Burger, D. Encephalopathy of mink: I. Epizootiologic and clinical observations. Journal of Infectious Diseases 115, 357-392. 1965.
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview/mink
    Call Number: CWD0041
  130. Hasse, A. (1979). Speculations on mechanisms of virus persistence. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 271-280. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/spongiform encephalopathy: virus/viroid theory
    Call Number: CWD0125
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  131. Hedge, R., Mastrianni, J., Scott, M., de Fea, K., Tremblay, P., Torchia, M., de Armond, S., Prusiner, S., and Lingappa, V. A transmembrane form of the prion protein in neurodegenerative disease. Science 279, 827-834. 1998.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, genetics/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0013
  132. Heim, D and Kihm, U (2003). Risk management of transmissible spongiform encephalopthies in Europe. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 179-199.
    Call Number: CWD0357
  133. Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (No. 2) Amendment Order 1990. Statutory Instrucment 1990 No. 1930 . 1990. London, HMSO.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0081
    Notes: ISBN 0110049306
  134. Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO). The bovine spongiform encephalopathy order 1988. Statutory Instrument Number 1039 . 1988. London, HMSO.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0080
    Notes: Statutory Instrument 1988 No. 1039 ISBN 0110870395
  135. Hess, A. D. Zoonoses of public health importance in North America. Proceedings - International Northwest Conference on Diseases in Nature Communicable to Man 23, 5-7. 1968.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathies: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0233
  136. Hibler, CP, Wilson, KL, and et al (2003). Field Validation and Assessment of an Emzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Chronic Wasting Disease in Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus), White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). J. Vet Diagn Invest 15, 311-319.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Diagnosis
    Call Number: CWD0332
    Notes: Tissue samples from mule deer, Rocky Mountain elk and white-tailed deer were collected statewide from Colorado and tested for chronic wasting disease (CWD) using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, brELISA. The study evolved two phases. In the validation phase, samples were examined using brELISA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the results from each testing method were compared, revealing an overall agreement between the two techniques. In the field application phase, the brELISA was determined to be an effective method for quickly screening large numbers of samples for CWD in both deer and elk populations.
  137. Hill, A., Joiner, S., Linehan, J., Desbruslais, M., Lantos, P., and Collinge, J. Species-barrier-independent prion replication in apparently resistant species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97[18], 10248-10253. 2000.
    Keywords: prion protein: species barrier/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0099
  138. Holger, W., Prusiner, S., and Cohen, F. (2000). Scrapie Infectivity is independent of amyloid staining properties of the n-terminally truncated prion protein. Journal of Structural Biology 130, 323-338.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0217
  139. Hope, J. Prion Protein-related diseases of man and animals. Palmer, S., Soulsby, Lord., and Simpson, D. Zoonoses: Biology, Clinical Practice, and Public Health Control. 423-435. 1998. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0116
    Notes: Chapter 36
  140. Hope, J., Reekie, L., Hunter, N., Multhaup, G., Beyreuther, K., White, H., Scott, A., Stack, M., Dawson, M., and Wells, G. Fibrils from brains of cows with new cattle disease contain scrapie-associated protein. Nature 336, 390-392. 1988.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: pathology/prion protein: genetics, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0042
  141. Hotchin, J. (1979). Scrapie as a slow and latent virus. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 55-69. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0111
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  142. Hourrigan, J., Klingsporn, A., Clark, W., and de Camp, M. (1979). Epidemiology of scrapie in the United States. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 331-356. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: epidemiology/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0102
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  143. Hunter, G. (1979). The enigma of the scrapie agent: biochemical approaches and the involvement of membranes and nucleic acids. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 365-385. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/spongiform encephalopathy: virus/viroid theory/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0127
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  144. Hunter, N., Foster, J., and Hope, J. Natural scrapie in British Sheep: Breeds, ages and PrP gene polymorphisms. Veterinary Record 130, 389-392. 1992.
    Keywords: scrapie: genetics/prion protein: genetics/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0066
  145. Hurtado, A., Garcia-Perez, A. L., Beltran de Heredia, I., Barandika, J., Sanz-Parra, A., Berriatua, E., and Juste, R. A. (2002). Genetic susceptibility to scrapie in a population of Latxa breed sheep in the Basque Country, Spain. Small Ruminant Research 45, 255-259.
    Keywords: scrapie: genetics/prion protein: genetics/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0267
  146. Ikegami, Y., Ito, M., Isomura, H., Momotani, E., Sasaki, K., Muramatsu, Y., Ishiguro, N., and Shinagawa, M. Preclinical and clinical diagnosis of scrapie by detection of PrP protein in tissues of sheep. Veterinary Record 128, 271-275. 1991.
    Keywords: scrapie: diagnosis/prion protein: detection/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0068
  147. Ingrosso, L, Vetrugno, V, Cardone, F, and et al (2002). Molecular diagnostics of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Trends in Molecular Medicine 8, 273-280.
    Keywords: Human Prion Diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), new variant CJD ; Spongiform Encephalopathy: diagnosis, human risk,
    Call Number: CWD0349
    Notes: Reviews the key pathogenetic mechanisms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that are considered when designing diagnostic methods. In addition, an overview is provided about the biochemical and genetic diagnostic tests that are currently available, detailing their advantages and disadvantages in regards to human diseases.
  148. Ironside, James W. (2002). Neuropathology of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. C.R. Biologies 27-31.
    Keywords: human prion disease: new variant CJD/prion protein: genetics
    Call Number: CWD0265
  149. Jacques, C. N. (2001). Incidence of Meningeal Worm, Chronic Wasting Disease, and Bovine Tuberculosis in Deer and Elk Populations in South Dakota (Thesis) . (South Dakota State University: South Dakota State University.)
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk/mule deer/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0202
    Notes: A thesis investigating the occurrence of three infectious diseases in deer and elk in South Dakota. Chronic wasting disease is one of the three disease studied from 1997-1999. Suggests theories on how these diseases are spread and makes some recommendations on managing free ranging and captive cervids populations.
  150. Jeffrey, M., Begara-McGorum, I., Clark, S., Martin, S., Clark, J., Chaplin, M., and Gonzalez, L. (2002). Occurrence and Distribution of Infection-specific PrP in Tissues of Clinical Scrapie Cases and Cull Sheep from Scrapie-affected Farms in Shetland. Journal of Comparative Pathology pp. 264-273.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, genetics/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0262
  151. Jeffrey, M., Goodsir, C., Bruce, M., McBride, P., and Fraser, J. In vivo toxicity of prion protein in murine scrapie: Ultrastructural and immunogold studies. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 23, 93-101. 1997.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology/scrapie: pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0018
  152. Jeffrey, M., Scott, J., Williams, A., and Fraser, H. Ultrastructural features of spongiform encephalopathy transmitted to mice from three species of Bovidae. Acta Neuropathologica 84, 559-569. 1992.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: pathology/spongiform encephalopathy: pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0017
  153. Jeffrey, M. and Wells, G. Spongiform encephalopathy in a nyala (Tragelaphus angasi). Veterinary Pathology 25, 398-399. 1988.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0067
  154. Johnson, C., Johnson, J., and et al (2003). Prion protein gene heterogeneity in free-ranging white-tailed deer within the chronic wasting disease affected region of Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39, 576-581.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: genetics; Prion Protein: genetics, detection; White-tailed deer; Wisconsin
    Call Number: CWD0369
    Notes: Study conducted to determine if prion protein gene (Prnp) allelic variability was associated with CWD in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin. The Prnp was sequenced from samples of deer both positive and negative for CWD. The Prnp allelic combination found in the CWD-positive deer seem to indicate that at least 86%-96% of white-tailed deer living in the affected zone are genetically susceptible to CWD. The article discusses the genetic findings and the implications this has on managing the disease and the possible existance of different CWD strains.
  155. Joly, D. O., Ribic, C. A., Langenberg, J. A., and et al. (2003). Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 599-601.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Epidemiology
    Call Number: CWD0309
    Notes: The sample results taken from 500 Wisconsin, adult White-tailed deer within an defined surveillance area were mapped out. Using an established spatial scan statistic formula with the computer program, SaTScan, the presences and location of CWD clusters were analyzed. The results were entered into a computer simulation of CWD dynamics and it showed the spread of CWD will have a greater impact on those cervid populations located on the eastside of the Mississippi than on their western counterparts, due to the eastern cervids high density population.
  156. Jones, A (2003). Prions, Prions Everywhere. Nature Review Neuroscience 4, 11.
    Call Number: CWD0340
  157. Kellar, JA and Lees, VW (2003). Rick Management of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in North America. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 201-225.
    Keywords: Spongiform Encephalopathy: pathology, Spongiform Encephalopathy: control/prevention , Prion: general/overview, Prion: pathology
    Call Number: CWD0323
    Notes: The harmonized, yet independent risk management strategies of the North America’s countries, Canada, United States and Mexico, are reviewed and compared against Europe’s management programs. The history of four transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, and scrapies are discussed in relation to the agricultural and veterinary infrastructures in the North American countries.
  158. Kelly, D., Pearson, H., Wright, A., and Greenham, L. Morbidity in captive white tigers. ed. Montali, R. and Migaki, G. The comparative pathology of zoo animals. 183-188. 1980. Front Royal, VA, Smithsonian Institution.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0071
  159. Kerr, H. (1995). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) suspect cases carcass disposal. State Veterinary Journal 5, 14-15.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: control/prevention, Great Britain Epidemic, cattle
    Call Number: CWD0230
  160. Kimberlin, R. (1976). Biochemical and behavioural changes in scrapie. In 'Slow virus diseases of animals and man'. (Ed. R. Kimberlin.) (North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam.)
    Keywords: scrapie: clinical signs, pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0086
    Notes: chapter 13, two copies
  161. Kimberlin, R. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Revue scientifique et technique office international des epizooties 11[2], 347-390. 1992.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0082
  162. Kimberlin, R. and Walker, C. Pathogenesis of scrapie in mice after intragastric infection. Virus Research 12, 213-220. 1989.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, transmission/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0058
  163. Kimberlin, R. H. (1993). Spongiform Encephalopathies in Animals.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiology, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0279
  164. Kimur, K. M., Haritani, M., and Kubo, M. (2002). Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the First Case of BSE in Japan. Veterinary Record 151, 328-330.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: pathology, case discussion/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0285
  165. Kirkwood, J. and Cunningham, A. Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles. Veterinary Record 135, 296-303. 1994.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiology, case discussion/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0057
  166. Kirkwood, J. and Cunningham, A. Spongiform encephalopathy in zoo ungulates: Implications for translocation and reintroduction. Proceedings of the conference of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians and the American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians , 26-27. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0070
    Notes: .American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  167. Kirkwood, J., Cunningham, A., Austin, A., Wells, G., and Sainsbury, A. Spongiform encephalopathy in a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) introduced into an affected group. Veterinary Record 134, 167-168. 1994.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0061
  168. Kirkwood, J., Cunningham, A., Flach, E., Thornton, S., and Wells, G. Spongiform encephalopathy in another captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): Evidence for variation in susceptibility or incubation periods between species? Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26, 577-583. 1995.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiology, transmission, case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0062
  169. Kirkwood, J., Wells, G., Cunningham, A., Jackson, S., Scott, A., Dawson, M., and Wilesmith, J. Scrapie-like encephalopathy in a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) which had not be fed ruminant-derived protein. Veterinary Record 130, 365-367. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, case discussion/prion protein: detection
    Call Number: CWD0060
  170. Kirkwood, J. K., Wells, G., Wilesmith, J., Cunningham, A., and Jackson, S. Spongiform encephalopathy in an Arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Veterinary Record 127, 418-420. 1990.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0059
  171. Klein, M., Frigg, R., Flechsig, E., Raeber, A., Kalinke, U., Bluethmann, H., Bootz, F., Suter, M., Zinkernagel, R., and Aguzzi, A. A crucial role for B cells in neuroinvasive scrapie. Nature 390, 687-690. 18/25 December 1997.
    Keywords: scrapie: immunology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0004
  172. Klein, MA, Kaeser, PS, and et al. (2001). Complement facilitates early prion pathogenesis. Nature Medicine 7, 488-492.
    Call Number: CWD0374
  173. Kocisko, D., Come, J., Priola, S., Chesebro, B., Raymond, G., Lansbury, P., and Caughley, B. Cell-free formation of protease-resistant prion protein. Nature 370, 471-474. 1994.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology
    Call Number: CWD0063
  174. Kretzschmar, Hans A. and Lederer, Rosa Maria (2002). Prionkrankheiten. Ernahrungs-Umschau 49, 216-222.
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD, new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0266
    Notes: in German
  175. Kutzejeski, E (2002). Chronic Wasting Disease. Missouri Conservationist 63, 17-21.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: general/overview, human risk, and control/prevention
    Call Number: CWD0343
    Notes: Due to the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from well-known isolated pockets in Colorado and Wyoming, Missouri’s Conservation Department began randomly sampling their deer population in 2002. The results of the survey revealed no deer tested positive for CWD. Provides a brief outline of the state’s plan to reduce the risk of CWD spreading into Missouri and they discusses the safety of consuming venison.
  176. Laplanche, J. L., Hunter, N., Shinagawa, M., and Williams, E. (1999). Scrapie, chronic wasting disease, and transmissible mink encephalopathy. In 'Prion-biology-and-diseases. '. (Ed. S. B. Prusiner.) pp. 393-429. (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor, NY.)
    Keywords: scrapie: general/overview/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0163
    Notes: Reviews current knowledge about transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including scrapie, chronic wasting disease and transmissible mink encephalopathy. Includes in depth review of scrapie including epidemiology, clinical presentation, infectivity, host control and natural transmission. Reviews research involving chronic wasting disease including history, clinical presentation, pathological and biochemical diagnosis and genetics.
  177. Lapointe, JM (2002). Screening for Chronic Wasting Disease in Caribou in Northern Quebec. Canadian Veterinary Journal 43, 886-887.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: epidemiology/Geography: Canada
    Call Number: CWD0345
    Notes: Due to the growing concern about chronic wasting disease, a sample survey was conducted on 100 caribou from the Leaf River heard in Northern Quebec (Nunavik). The result findings for CWD were negative, however the author points out that this was a very small sampling compared to the size of the herd (approximately 26,000 animals are hunted every year). Due to the fact that obtaining a larger sampling is impractical, because of harsh weather and other constraints, the author recommends focusing the screening, targeting older and debilitated animals.
  178. Lasmezas, CI (2003). The transmissible songifrom encephalopathies. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 23-36.
    Call Number: CWD0352
  179. Latarjet, R. (1979). Inactivation of the agents of scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and kuru by radiations. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 387-407. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, virus/viroid theory/scrapie: etiology/human prion disease: CJD, kuru
    Call Number: CWD0128
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  180. Liberski, P., Guiroy, D., Williams, E., Yanagihara, R., Brown, P., and Gajdusek, D. (1993). Chapter 12: The Amyloid Plaque. In 'Light and electron microscopic neuropathology of slow virus disorders'. (Ed. P. Liberski.) pp. 295-347. (CRC Press: Boca Raton.)
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, pathology/spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, pathology/scrapie: etiology, pathology/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, pathology/chronic wasting disease: etiology, pathology/human prion disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0087
  181. Liberski, P. P., Guiroy, D. C., Williams, E. S., Walis, A., and Budka, H. Deposition patterns of disease-associated prion protein in captive mule deer brains with chronic wasting disease. Acta Neuropathologica. 102[5], 496-500. 2001.
    Keywords: prion protein: pathology/chronic wasting disease: pathology/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0160
    Notes: Thirteen of 16 chronic wasting disease infected captive mule deer brains examined for the disease-associated prion protein (PrP) using immunocytochemistry. The PrP deposition most often occurred as florid plaques surrounded by a rim of spongiform vacuoles. The highest percentages of florid plaques were found in the medulla and basal ganglia. Results indicated CWD brain pathology is similar to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).
  182. Liberski, PP (1995). Prions, B-Sheets and Transmissible Dementias: Is There Still Something Missing? Acta Neuropathol 90, 113-125.
    Call Number: CWD0341
  183. Ma, Jiyan and Lindquist, Susan (2002). Conversion of PrP to a Self-Perpetuating PrPsc-like Conformation in the Cytosol. Science 298, pp. 1785-1788.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology/spongiform encephalopathy: etiology
    Call Number: CWD0268
  184. Ma, Jiyan, Wollmann, Robert, and Lindquist, Susan (2002). Neurotoxicity and Neurodegeneration When PrP Accumulates in the Cytosolq. Science 298, 1781-1785.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, pathology/spongiform encephalopathy: etiology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0269
  185. Mabbott, N. and Bruce, M. The immunobiology of TSE diseases. Journal of General Virology 82, 2307-2318. 2001.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: immunology
    Call Number: CWD0161
    Notes: Reviews previous and original research regarding transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) and the role of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells (FDC's), germinal centers (GC's) and macrophages in TSE pathogenesis. Suggests FDC's are a location of PrP accumulation. Suggests that FDC's are important for the pathogenesis of some TSE's and the FDC's could be potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
  186. Mabbott, NA, Bruce, ME, and et al. (2001). Temporary depletion of complement component C3 or genetic deficiency of C1q significantly delays onset of scrapie. Nature Medicine 7, 485-487.
    Call Number: CWD0373
  187. MacDiarmid SC. Chronic wasting disease of deer, BSE and the threat of scrapie. Surveillance-Wellington 17[2], 23-24; 10 ref. 1990.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: control/prevention, Scrapie: control/prevention, Chronic Wasting Disease: transmission, control/prevention, deer
    Call Number: CWD0207
    Notes: Examines the New Zealand import banding of deer from the United Kingdom in 1989 because of the potential treat of transmitting TDEs (transmissible degenerative encephalopathies). Argues that deer imported before the band will need to be scrutinized closely by veterinary practitioners to prevent the disease from becoming established in the animal population. At the time of this article, there was more of a concern about BSE coming out of the United Kingdom due to the number of reported cases, in comparison to the isolated cases of CWD reported by North America.
  188. Mackintosh, C. G. Deer health and disease. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica. 46[3], 381-394. 1998.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0155
    Notes: Discusses a number of diseases of farmed deer including history, present status and future prognosis. Includes a brief summary of chronic wasting disease and its potential to be a serious threat to wild and farmed deer. Discusses zoonotic risks of diseases affecting deer, stress, welfare, and deer restraint.
  189. Madec, J. Y., Vanier, A., and Dorier, A. (1997). Biochemical Properties of Protease Resistant Prion Protein PrPsc in Natural Sheep Scrapie . Archives of Virology 142, 1603-1612.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/prion protein: biology
    Call Number: CWD0251
  190. Madson, C. (1998). Chronic Wasting Disease. Wyoming Wildlife 62, 21-28.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview/spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0286
    Notes: Good article for the non-scientist, easy to read with little technical jargon. Discusses historical background on the discovery of CWD and the disease causing prion. Other TSE diseases, scrapies, Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and BSE (bovine spongiform encephelophy) are also highlighted as they relate to CWD. Explores the questions researches are still struggling to answer, such as what is a prion and how is CWD transmitted.
  191. Malamud, N. (1979). Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease: a clinicopathologic study. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 271-285. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD
    Call Number: CWD0103
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  192. Malmgren, R., Kurland, L., Mokri, B., and Kurtzke, J. (1979). The epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 93-112. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD
    Call Number: CWD0095
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  193. Maneulidis, E. and Maneulidis, L. (1979). Observations on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease propagated in small rodents. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 147-173. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0119
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  194. Manson, J. C. (1996). PrP-Deficient Mice in the Study of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. In 'Methods in Molecular Medicine: Prion Diseases'. (H. F. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 237-249. (Humana Press Inc.: Totowa, New Jersey.)
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics, biology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0293
  195. Marsh, R. Animal models of unconventional slow virus infections. ILAR News 26[4], 19-22. 1983.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, transmission, species barrier, human risk/human prion disease: kuru, CJD
    Call Number: CWD0158
    Notes: Discusses the use of animal models to study unconventional diseases and agent-host interactions and the epidemiological relationship between animal and human infections. Discusses scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, and gives a brief summary of chronic wasting disease.
  196. Marsh, R. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: a new disease of cattle? Archives of virology. Supplementum 7, 255-259. 1993.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiology, prevention/control/transmissible mink encephalopathy: etiology, transmission
    Call Number: CWD0117
  197. Marsh, R. (1976). The subacute spongiform encephalopathies. In 'Slow virus diseases of animals and man'. (Ed. R. Kimberlin.) (North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/human prion disease: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0078
    Notes: chapter 15
  198. Marsh, R., Bessen, R., Lehmann, S., and Hartsough, G. Epidemiological and experimental studies on a new incident of transmissible mink encephalopathy. Journal of General Virology 72, 589-594. 1991.
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: etiology, epidemiology, pathology/mink/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0032
  199. Marsh, R. and Hanson, R. (1979). On the Origin of transmissible mink encephalopathy. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 451-460. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: transmissible mink encephalopathy: etiology, transmission/mink
    Call Number: CWD0108
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical,epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopthies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  200. Masters, C., Harris, J., Gajdusek, D., Gibbs Jr., C., Bernoulli, C., and Asher, D. (1979). Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Patterns of worldwide occurrence. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 113-142. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD
    Call Number: CWD0106
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  201. Matthews, D and Cooke, BC (2003). The potential for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in non-ruminant livestock and fish. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 283-296.
    Call Number: CWD0363
  202. Maury, CPJ (2001). Is EDFR a Specific Marker for TSE's. Nature Medicine 7, 641-642.
    Call Number: CWD0334
  203. McCarty, C. and Miller, M. A versatile model of disease transmission applied to forecasting bovine tuberculosis dynamics in white-tailed deer populations. Journal of Wildlife Disease 34[4], 722-730. 1998.
    Keywords: disease modeling/management/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0100
  204. McCrea, D (2003). Risk communication of the transmissible spongifrom encephalopathies. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 251-257.
    Call Number: CWD0360
  205. McGill, I. and Wells, G. Neuropathological findings in cattle with clinically suspect but histologically unconfirmed bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Journal of Comparative Pathology 108, 241-260. 1993.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis, pathology/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0028
  206. Merz, P., Rohwer, R., Kascsak, K., Wisniewiski, H., Somerville, R., Gibbs Jr., C., and Gajdusek, D. Infection-specific particle from the unconventional slow virus diseases. Science 225, 437-440. 1984.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, pathology/human prion disease: CJD
    Call Number: CWD0026
  207. Miele, G., Manson, J., and Clinton, M. A novel erythroid-specific marker of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Nature Medicine. 7[3], 361-364. 2001.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0167
    Notes: Reports the first identification of a molecular marker from readily accessible tissue for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in non-central nervous system tissue. Compares gene expression in spleen of scrapie-infected and uninfected mice using the differential display reverse-transcriptase PCR (DDRT-PCR) procedure. Reports a dramatic decrease in expression of a transcript specific to erythroid lineage cells is a common feature of TSE’s.
  208. Miller, M. W. (1990). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Mammals Research, Project No. W-153-R-3. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 45-63.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control/disease modeling/management/mule deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0192
  209. Miller, M. W. Chronic Wasting Disease in Cervids: Update on Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Deer and Elk. United States Animal Health Association: Little Rock, Arkansas - October 12-18, 1996 100, 665. 1996.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, transmission/elk /mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0185
    Notes: USHA Meeting 1996: Update on CWD provided by Michael Miller that estimate CWD prevalence at .9% in wild mull deer and less then 1% in wild elk. Raises the issue of lateral transmission as an important factor in the epizoolology of CWD.
  210. Miller, M. W. (1997). Monitoring and Managing Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer and Elk, Project W-153-R-10 . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 37-38.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk/mule deer/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0182
  211. Miller, M. W. (1998). Monitoring and Managing Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer, Project W-153-R-11 . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 147-148.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control /mule deer/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0178
  212. Miller, M. W. (1998). Monitoring and Managing Chronic Wasting Disease in Elk, Project W-153-R-11 . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 227.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk
    Call Number: CWD0179
  213. Miller, M. W. (1996). Monitoring and Managing Wildlife Health in Colorado, Project No. W-153-R-9. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 175-184.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0199
  214. Miller, M. W., Larsen, C. T., and Gross, J. (1999). Monitoring and Managing Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer, Project No. W-153-R-12. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 91-124.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0200
  215. Miller, M. W., McCarty, C. A, Getzy, D. M., Mehaffy, C. A., Stevens, M. L., Williams, E. S., Adrian, W. J., and Spraker, T. R. (1994). Monitoring and Managing Wildlife Health in Colorado, Project No. W-153-R-7. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 91-102.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0197
  216. Miller, M. W., McCarty, C. W., Mehaffy, C. A., Ford, R., and Williams, E. S. (1995). Monitoring and Managing Wildlife Health in Colorado, Project No. W-153-R-8 . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 141-150.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/disease modeling/management/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0190
  217. Miller, M. W., McCarty, C. W., Mehaffy, C. A., Ford, R., and Williams, E. S. (1995). Monitoring and Managing Wildlife Health in Colorado, Project W-153-R-8 . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 141-142.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0180
  218. Miller, M. W., Stevens, M. L., Adrian, W. J., Spraker, T. R., and Williams, E. S. (1992). Monitoring and Managing Wildlife Health in Colorado, Project No. W-153-R-4. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 141-150.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/disease modeling/management/deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0195
  219. Miller, M. W., Stevens, M. L., Adrian, W. J., Spraker, T. R., Williams, E. S., McCarty, C. A., and Getzy, D. M. (1993). Monitoring and Managing Wildlife Health in Colorado, Project No. W-153-R-4. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 151-159.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/disease modeling/management/deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0196
  220. Miller, M. W., Wild, M. A., Maynard, B. J., and Stout, G. A (1991). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Mammals Research, Project No. W-153-R-3. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 73-84.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology/elk
    Call Number: CWD0193
  221. Miller, M. W. and Williams, E. S. ( 2002). Detection of PrPcwd in Mule Deer by Immunohistochemistry of Lymphoid Tissues. The Veterinary Record 151, 610-612.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Diagnosis, pathology, elk, mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0302
    Notes: Describes data showing that tonsil and retropharyngeal lymph node tissue immunohistochemistry can reliably detect PrPcwd and estimate the prevalence of CWD in free-ranging mule deer populations. The results of the various stained tissue samples illustrate the progression of the disease. Brief descriptions of the staining techniques used and photographs of the tissue stained samples are provided.
  222. Miller, Michael (1994). Spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging deer and elk. United States Animal Health Association 581-582.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, case discussion/elk /white-tailed deer/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0256
  223. Miller MW, Wild MA, and Williams ES. Epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive Rocky Mountain elk. Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 34[3], 532-538; 20 ref. 1998.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, transmission/elk
    Call Number: CWD0142
    Notes: A report of epidemiological observations on two captive Rocky Mountain elk herds in a wildlife research facility in Colorado. Describes the depopulation of the first elk herd in 1985 and subsequent decontamination efforts to rid the facility of CWD. In 1986, a second herd of 12 wild-born female calves was acquired. Births and other acquisitions raised the total to 36 by 1987. Follows the history of these elk until death and details necropsy reports with 4 cases of CWD confirmed. Comparison of the two outbreaks leads to the conclusion that there is circumstantial evidence for lateral transmission of CWD among elk. Puts forth hypothesis of CWD epidemiology in elk where by CWD agent enters elk via oral exposure to infectious secretions or excretions with an incubation period of 1.5 to 3 years.
  224. Miller, MW and Williams, ES (2003). Horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature 425, 35-36.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: epidemiology, transmission, Effected Species: white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0348
    Notes: Study conducted at the Foothills Wildlife Research Facility in Colorado compared over a five-year period the effectiveness of maternal transmission versus horizontal transmission in the spread of chronic wasting disease. The results indicate that maternal transmission contributed very little to the spread of the disease. On the other hand, horizontal transmission appears to be very effective.
  225. Miller MW, Williams ES, McCarty CW, Spraker TR, Kreeger TJ, Larsen CT, and Thorne ET. Epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in Colorado and Wyoming. Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 36[4], 676-690; 37 ref. 2000.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology/disease modeling/management/white-tailed deer/mule deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0143
    Notes: Describes an epidemic model to aid in evaluating basic assumptions about CWD transmission and in forecasting CWD dynamics. Stresses the importance of viewing CWD as an epidemic with a protracted time scale.
  226. Millson, G., Hunter, G., and Kimberlin, R. (1976). The physico-chemical nature of the scrapie agent. In 'Slow virus diseases of animals and man'. (Ed. R. Kimberlin.) pp. 243-266. (North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology
    Call Number: CWD0093
    Notes: chapter 11
  227. Millson, G. and Manning, E. (1979). The effect of selected detergents on scrapie infectivity. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 409-423. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology
    Call Number: CWD0118
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  228. Mohler, J. R. (1926). Foot-and-Mouth: With Special Reference to the Outbreaks in California, 1924, and Texas, 1924 and 1925. Department Circular 400, United States Department of Agriculture 1-82.
    Keywords: disease modeling/management
    Call Number: CWD0240
  229. Moreau, M., Asher, D., Rohwer, R., Walker, K., Brown, P., and Gajdusek, D. (1979). Cell-fusing activity of the subacute spongiform encephalopathy viruses: a status report. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 243-249. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, virus/viroid theory
    Call Number: CWD0123
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  230. Morley, RS, Chen, S, and Rheault, N (2003). Assessment of the risk factors related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 157-178.
    Call Number: CWD0356
  231. Murphy FA. New, emerging, and reemerging infectious diseases. Advances-in-Virus-Research. 43, 1-52. 1994.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/spongiform encephalopathy: prion theory
    Call Number: CWD0149
    Notes: Short discussion of chronic wasting disease especially in regard to decontamination protocols, which defy explanations about source of the infection.
  232. Neil, P. H. (1985). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Big Game Research . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 99, 101-102.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0201
  233. Neil, P. H. (1986). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Big Game Research, Project No. 01-03-048. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 159-162.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: prevention/control/disease modeling/management/deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0191
  234. O'Rourke, K., Baszler, T., Miller, J., Spraker, T., Sadler-Riggleman, I., and Knowles, D. Monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5 defines a conserved epitope on the ruminant prion protein. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, 1750-1755. 1998.
    Keywords: Spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis, pathology/sheep/goats/elk/mule deer/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0027
  235. O'Rourke, K., Baszler, T., Parish, S., and Knowles, D. Preclinical detection of PrPsc in nictitating membrane lymphoid tissue of sheep. Veterinary Record 142, 489-491. 1998.
    Keywords: scrapie: diagnosis/prion protein: detection/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0012
  236. O'Rourke, K., Holyoak, G., Clark, W., Mickelson, J., Wang, S., Melco, R., Besser, T., and Fotte, W. PrP genotypes and experimental scrapie in orally inoculated Suffold sheep in the United States. Journal of general Virology 78, 975-978. 1997.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0073
  237. O' Rourke KI, Besser TE, Miller MW, Cline TF, Spraker TR, Jenny AL, Wild MA, Zebarth GL, and Williams ES. PrP genotypes of captive and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease. Journal-of-General-Virology 80[10], 2765-2769; 24 ref. 1999.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: genetics/prion protein: genetics/elk
    Call Number: CWD0074
    Notes: Explains the PrP gene which encodes the supposed causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE's). Focused on a determination of the PrP genotypes of CWD-affected elk and of unaffected elk. Includes table of PrP codon 132 genotypes of Rock Mountain elk with CWD. Includes western immunoblot figure of PrP genotypes in elk and PrP sequence analysis. Concluded that Rocky Mountain elk homozygous for PrP codon 132 Met were prominent in both free-ranging and farm-raised elk may imply that selective breeding for TSE resistance is possibility.
  238. O'Rourke, KI, Zhuang, D, and et al (2003). Abundant PrPcwd in Tonsil from Mule Deer with Preclinical Chronic Wasting Disease. J. Vet Diagn Invest 15, 320-323.
    Call Number: CWD0338
  239. Oesch, B., Doherr, M., Heim, D., Fischer, K., Egli, S., Bolliger, S., Biffiger, K., Schaller, O., Vandevelde, M., and Moser, M. (2000). Application of Prionics Western Blotting Procedure to Screen for BSE in Cattle Regularly Slaughtered at Swiss Abattoirs. Archives of Virology 16, 189-195.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: control/prevention/prion protein: detection
    Call Number: CWD0235
  240. Outram, G. (1976). The pathogenesis of scrapie in mice. In 'Slow virus diseases of animals and man'. (Ed. R. Kimberlin.) pp. 325-357. (North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam.)
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0088
    Notes: chapter 14
  241. Ozawa, Y (2003). Risk management of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Asia. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 237-249.
    Call Number: CWD0359
  242. Pálsson, P. (1979). Rida (Scrapie) in Iceland and its epidemiology. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 1'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 357-366. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0104
    Notes: Volume 1: Clinical, epidemiological, genetic, and pathological aspects of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an International symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 4-7, 1978
  243. Paul, J. (1995). La Manipulation du Prion au Laboratoire: Precautions et Methodes Possibles de Decontamination (Handling Prion in Laboratory) . Pathologie Biologie 43, 121-123.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0209
  244. Paul, J. (1995). Le Prion, des Vaches Folles au Creutzfeld-Jakob Iatrogene Quel Risque en Laboratoire ou a L'Hopital? (Prion from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) . Pathologie Biologie 43, 114-120.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: human risk/prion protein: inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0210
  245. Pearson, G., Wyatt, J., Gruffydd-Jones, T., Hope, J., Chong, A., Higgins, R., Scott, A., and Wells, G. Feline spongiform encephalopathy: Fibril and PrP studies. Veterinary Record 131, 307-310. 1992.
    Keywords: feline spongiform encephalopathy/prion protein: detection, pathology/domestic cats
    Call Number: CWD0007
  246. Peet, R. and Curran, J. Spongiform encephalopathy in an imported cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Australian Veterinary Journal 69[7], 171. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0076
  247. Peretz, D., Williamson, R. A., Kaneko, K., Vergara, J., Leclerc, E., Schmitt-Ulms, G., Mehlhorn, I. R., Legname, G., Wormald, M. R., Rudd, P. M., Dwek, R. A., Burton, D. R., and Prusiner, S. B. Antibodies inhibit prion propagation and clear cell cultures of prion infectivity. Nature 412, 739-743. 2001.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control/prion protein: biology
    Call Number: CWD0136
    Notes: Indicates that recombinant antibody antigen-binding fragments inherit prion propagation in cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells. In cells treated with most potent antibody, Fabs D18, prion replication is abolished and pathogenic prion protein is rapidly cleaved. Concludes that specific antibodies may be extremely effective in fighting neurodegenerative diseases associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins.
  248. Peters J, Miller JM, Jenny AL, Peterson TL, and Carmichael KP. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in preclinically affected elk from a captive herd. Journal-of-Veterinary-Diagnostic-Investigation 12[6], 579-582; 11 ref. 2000.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: diagnosis/elk
    Call Number: CWD0154
    Notes: Describes methods and results of an immunohistochemical (IHC) test for protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) on 17 elk from a CWD infected captive herd in South Dakota. Brainstem, especially medulla oblongata at the obex and cervical spinal cord immediately caudal to the meddulla were found to be the best sites for IHC detection of PrPres. Conclude the PrPres IHC test on brain tissue is more sensitive diagnostic tool than histopathology and should be considered essential in determining the incidence of CWD in cervids.
  249. Picoux-Brugere, J. (1995). Clinical Aspects of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in Animals. Med Mal Infect. 25, 251-258.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview, human risk
    Call Number: CWD0313
    Notes: in French
  250. Prince, MJ, Bailey, JA, and et al (2003). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 37-60.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: pathology, Great Britain epidemic, etiology, human risk,
    Call Number: CWD0329
    Notes: Discusses the risk of transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Some of the topics covered in the article are the origin of infection, species barrier, route of infection, maternal transmission, the pathology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, the UK epidemic, and feed control.
  251. Priola, S. A., Chabry, J., and Chan, K. M. Efficient conversion of normal prion protein (prp) by abnormal hamster prp is determined by homology at amino acid residue 155. Journal of Virology. 75[10], 4673-4680. 2001.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics, species barrier/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0276
  252. Prowse, C. V. (2001). Leucodepletion, bacterial testing and pathogen removal update and position for Scotland: April 2001. Transfusion and Apheresis Science 25, 217-218.
    Keywords: human prion disease: prevention/control, new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0215
  253. Prusiner, S. Molecular biology of prion diseases. Science 252[5012], 1515-1522. 1991.
    Keywords: prion protein: general/overview, species barrier/human prion disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0015
  254. Prusiner, S. Novel proteinaceous infectious particles cause scrapie. Science 216[4542], 136-144. 1982.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/prion protein: biology
    Call Number: CWD0016
  255. Prusiner, S. Prion Diseases and the BSE Crisis. Science 278, 245-251. 1997.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk/human prion disease: general/overview, new variant CJD/spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control/prion protein: biology
    Call Number: CWD0014
  256. Prusiner, SB (1984). Prions: novel infectious pathogens. Advances in Virus Research 29, 1-56.
    Keywords: prion protein: general/overview, genetics/scrapie: epidemiology/human prion disease: kuru, CJD
    Call Number: CWD0236
  257. Prusiner, Stanley B. (1984). Prions (These agents of infectious disease present a biological conundrum: Prions contain protein and reproduce in the living cell, yet on DNA or RNA has been found in them. What is the nature of their genome?). Scientific America 50-59.
    Keywords: prion protein: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0326
    Notes: Overview of work done by Stanley Prusiner on scrapies that led him to his discovery of prions. Outlines details on the alternative purification technique used in his experiments and discusses his hypothesis on how prions replicate.
  258. Quirk, M. (2002). CWD and Neurological Disease Cluster Link Investigated. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2, 652.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Human Risk, Human Prion Diseases: CJD
    Call Number: CWD0321
  259. Race, R., Raines, A., Raymond, G. J., Caughey, B., and Chesebro, B. Long-term subclinical carrier state precedes scrapie replication and adaptation in a resistant species: analogies to bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Journal of Virology. 75[21], 10106-10112. 2001.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, species barrier/spongiform encephalopathy: etiology, species barrier, human risk/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0275
  260. Race, R. E., Raines, A., and Baron, T. G. (2002). Comparison of Abnormal Prion Protein Glycoform Patterns from Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent-Infected Deer, Elk, Sheep, and Cattle . Journal of Virology 76, 12365-12368.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: transmission, Transmission Spongiform Encephalopathy: transmission, Scrapie: transmission, elk, deer, sheep, cattle
    Call Number: CWD0248
  261. Rachili, W., Mange, A., Senator, A., and et. al. (2003). Prion Infection Impairs Copper Binding of Cultured Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278, 14595-14598.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology/spongiform encephalopathy: etiology
    Call Number: CWD0304
  262. Raymond, G., Hope, J., Kocisko, D., Priola, S., Raymond, L., Bossers, A., Ironside, J., Will, R., Chen, S. G., Petersen, R., Gambetti, P., Rubenstein, R., Smits, M., Lansbury Jr., P., and Caughey, B. Molecular assessment of the potential transmissibilities of BSE and scrapie to humans. Nature 388, 285-288. 17 July 1997.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, human risk/scrapie: transmission, human risk
    Call Number: CWD0005
  263. Raymond GJ, Bossers A, Raymond LD, O' Rourke KI, McHolland LE, Bryant PK III, Miller MW, Williams ES, Smits M, and Caughey B. Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to chronic wasting disease. EMBO-Journal 19[17], 4425-4430; 21 ref. 2000.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics, species barrier/chronic wasting disease: transmission, human risk/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier/cattle/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0139
    Notes: Suggests that CWD transmissions to humans would be limited by prion protein incompatibility similar to the resistance that humans have to sheep scrapie or BSE. Concludes that since BSE has caused new variant CJD in about 74 people, reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans should be taken.
  264. Ridley, R. M. and Baker, H. R. The Paradox of Prion Disease. Baker, H. F. and Ridley, R. M. Prion Diseases. 1-13. 1996. Totowa, NJ, Humana Press.
    Keywords: prion protein: general/overview, viral/viroid theory, protein theory/spongiform encephalopathy: overview, genetics, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0272
  265. Robinson, M., Hadlow, W., Knowles, D., Huff, T., Lacy, P., Marsh, R., and Gorham, J. Infection of cattle with the agents of TME and scrapie. Journal of comparative Pathology 113, 241-251. 1995.
    Keywords: transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, case discussion/scrapie: transmission, case discussion/prion protein: genetics/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0065
  266. Rosatte, R, Hamr, J, and et al (2002). Elk Restoration in Ontario, Canada: Infectious Disease Management Strategy, 1998-2001. Annuals of the New York Academy of Sciences 969, 358-63.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: control/prevention
    Call Number: CWD0328
    Notes: Ontario started a program to restore elk that were once native to the area. Between 1998 and 2001, 443 elk were transported from Elk Island National Park, Alberta and released. Part of the program's design is to conduct postmortem analysis of elk mortalities to verify that they were not infected with chronic wasting disease. As of July 2001, all the test results have been negative.
  267. Rowe, Graham (2001). Leucodepletion (LD) trends and preferred approaches. Transfusion and Apheresis Science 25, 219-220.
    Keywords: human prion disease: prevention/control, new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0214
  268. Rutala, William A. and Weber, David J. (2001). Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Recommendations for Disinfection and Sterilization. Healthcare Epidemiology 32, 1348-1356.
    Keywords: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: prevention/control, epidemiology
    Call Number: CWD0234
  269. Saegerman, C, Claes, L, Dewaele, A, and et al. (2003). Differential diagnosis of neurologically expressed disorders is Western European cattle. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 83-102.
    Call Number: CWD0353
  270. Safar, J. G., Scott, M., and Monahgan, J. (2002). Measuring Prions Causing Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or Chronic Wasting Disease by Immunoassays and Transgenic Mice . Nature Biotechnology 20, 1147-1150.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: etiology, diagnosis, cattle, Chronic Wasting Disease: diagnosis, etiology, elk, deer
    Call Number: CWD0238
  271. Sakaguchi, S., Katamine, S., Nishida, N., Moriucki, R., Shigematsu, K., Sugimoto, T., Nakatani, A., Kataoka, Y., Houtani, T., Shirabe, S., Okada, H., Hasegawa, S., Miyamoto, T., and Noda, T. Loss of cerebellar purkinje cells in aged mice homozygous for a disrupted PrP gene. Nature 380, 528-531. 1996.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics, pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0055
  272. Salman, Mo D. (2003). Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer and Elk: Scientific Facts and Findings. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 65, 761-768.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0365
    Notes: Provides an overview on chronic wasting disease in which the author summarizes different key aspects of the disease: historical background, pathogenesis, vulnerable species, transmission, surveillance, diagnostic methods, management strategies, economic effects and feed safety (for both humans and animals).
  273. Sanger, H. (1979). Structure and function of viroids. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 291-341. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: virus/viroid theory
    Call Number: CWD0126
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  274. Saunders, L. Z. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy . Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204[11], 1734. 1994.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, human risk/chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, transmission, human risk
    Call Number: CWD0184
    Notes: Letter to the editor which questions whether CWD infected deer and elk could transmit BSE to cattle. Authors respond that domestic cattle housed with CWD infected Cervidae did not develop spongiform encephalopathy. A theoretical risk may involve the incorporation of infected tissue from Cervidae into meat and bone meal. This risk is so small as to not be included.
  275. Saunders, Leon Z., Bleem, Anita M., Crom, Randall L., Francy, Bruce D., Hueston, William D., Kopral, Christine, and Walker, Kevin (1994). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 204, 1734-1735.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0257
    Notes: Duplicate of a previous number!
  276. Schatxl, H., Wopfner, F., Gilch, S., von Brunn, A., and Jager, G. Is condon 129 of prion protein polymorphic in human beings but not in animals? Lancet 349, 219-220. 1997.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics
    Call Number: CWD0019
  277. Schauber, EM and Woolf, A (2003). Chronic wasting disease in deer and elk: a critique of current models and their application. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31, 610-616.
    Call Number: CWD0378
  278. Schmerr, M. J., Jenny, A. L., Bulgin, M. S., Miller, J. M., Hamir, A. N., Cutlip, R. C., and Goodwin, K. R. Use of capillary electrophoresis and fluorescent labeled peptides to detect the abnormal prion protein in the blood of animals that are infected with a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Journal of Chromatography. A. 853[1-2], 207-214. 1999.
    Keywords: prion protein: detection/spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/chronic wasting disease: diagnosis/scrapie: diagnosis/sheep/goats/elk
    Call Number: CWD0169
    Notes: The first report on an analytical method that detects the abnormal prion protein in the blood of sheep infected with scrapie and elk infected with chronic wasting disease. Results indicate the ability to detect abnormal prion proteins in blood fractions tested in the capillary electrophoresis immunoassay.
  279. Schonberger, L. B. (1998). New Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy . Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 12, 111-121.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, human risk/human prion disease: CJD, new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0253
  280. Schoon, H., Brunckhorst, D., and Pohlenz, J. Spongiform encephalopathy in a red-necked ostrich (Struthio camelus). Tierarztl Prax 19, 263-265. 1991.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: case discussion/zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0085
    Notes: in German
  281. Schreuder, B. Animal spongiform encephalopathies-an update. Part 1: Scrapie and lesser known animal spongiform encephalopathies. The Veterinary Quarterly 16[3], 174-181. 1994.
    Keywords: scrapie: general/overview, genetics/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview/feline spongiform encephalopathy
    Call Number: CWD0173
    Notes: Focuses on the occurrence, epidemiology, diagnosis, genetics, molecular genetics, transmission to other species and prospects of preclinical diagnosis for scrapie in sheep. Brief discussion of Chronic Wasting Disease, Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy and Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy.
  282. Schreuder, B., van Keulen, L., Vrommans, M., Langeveld, J., and Smits, M. Tonsillar biopsy and PrPsc detection in the preclinical diagnosis of scrapie. Veterinary Record 142, 564-568. 1998.
    Keywords: scrapie: diagnosis/prion protein: detection
    Call Number: CWD0064
  283. Schreuder, BEC and Somerville, RA (2003). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep? Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 37-60.
    Call Number: CWD0354
  284. Scott, A., Wells, G., Stack, M., White, H., and Dawson, M. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Detection and quantitation of fibrils, fibril protein (PrP) and vacuolation in brain. Veterinary Microbiology 23, 295-305. 1990.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/prion protein: detection, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0077
  285. Scrimgeour, E. M., Brown, Paul, and Monaghan, P. (1996). Disposal of rendered specified offal. The Veterinary Record 219-220.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0226
  286. Seitz, R. and Montag, T. (2001). Global views on leukodepletion, bacterial testing, viral removal/inactivation: Germany. Transfusion and Apheresis Science 25, 203-204.
    Keywords: human prion disease: prevention/control, new variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0213
  287. Sellier, P (2003). Protein nutrition for ruminatnts in European countires, in the light of animal feeding regulations linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 259-269.
    Call Number: CWD0361
  288. Shaked, G., Shaked, Y., Kariv-Inbal, Z., Halimi, M., Avraham, I., and Gabizon, R. A Protease-resistant prion protein isoform is present in urine of animals and humans affected with prion diseases. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 276[34], 31479-31482. 2001.
    Keywords: prion protein: detection/spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/lab animals/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0098
  289. Shaw, I., Berry, C., Lane, E., Fitzmaurice, P., Clark, D., and Holden, A. (2002). Studies on the Putative Interactions between the Organophosphorus Insecticide Phosmet and Recombinant Mouse PrPc and its Implication in the BSE Epidemic. Veterinary Research Communications 26, 263-271.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, etiology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0297
  290. Siedl, A., Koontz, S., and et al. Economic implications of chronic wasting disease. 2003 June. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: economic impact
    Call Number: CWD0370
    Notes: The potential economic effects of CWD, both directly and indirectly are significant. This report discusses the direct effects this disease will have on hunting, wildlife watching, agricultural land values, the farmed cervid industry, and the potential government indemnity liability. The indirect effects considered are consumer demand for meat, trade sanctions, and policies governing financial relieve for farms.
  291. Sigurdson, C. J., Barillas-Mury, C., Miller, M. W., Oesch, B., van Keulen, L. J. M., Langeveld, J. P. M., and Hoover, E. A. (2002). PrPCWD Lymphoid Cell Targets in Early and Advanced Chronic Wasting Disease of Mule Deer . Journal of General Virology 83, 2617-2628.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: diagnosis, control/prevention, mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0206
  292. Sigurdson, C. J., Spraker, T. R., Miller, M. W., Oesch, B., and Hoover, E. A. Prpcwd in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease. Journal of General Virology. 82[Part 10], 2327-2334. 2001.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: etiology, pathology/prion protein: detection/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0145
    Notes: Neural and endocrine tissues from 6 mule deer naturally infected with chronic wasting disease were examined using immunohistochemistry. The pathogenic isoform of the prion protein (PrPcwd) was found in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk, nodose ganglion, pituitary, adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. The results suggest that PrPcwd spreads either centrifugally or centripetally via nerves and that endocrine organs maybe be sources of prion accumulation.
  293. Sigurdson CJ, Williams ES, Miller MW, Spraker TR, O' Rourke KI, and Hoover EA. Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus). Journal-of-General-Virology 80[10], 2757-2764; 27 ref. 1999.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: etiology, transmission/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0075
    Notes: Study attempts to demonstrate the feasibility of CWD transmission by oral exposure in mule deer fawns. Fawns were inoculated orally with a brain homogenate prepared from the brains of 26 deer infected with CWD. Fawns were necropsies and examined at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78, and 80 days post inoculation for PrPres, the abnormal prion protein isoform. Used an enhanced immunostaining method of formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated autoclaving was used to detect PrPres. Found presence of PrPres in regional lymph nodes as early as 6 weeks after oral exposure. No PrPres was found in 3 control fawns that received control brain inoculum. Concluded that initial infection occurs through alimentary canal. Includes slides.
  294. Soltysiak, Zenon Barcikowska Maria (2002). Similarities and differences between prion diseases, Alzheimer disease and senile animals brain amyloidosis-B. Centrum Medycyna Wet. 58, 744-749.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: pathology
    Call Number: CWD0312
    Notes: in Polish
  295. Somerville, R. A., Oberthur, R. C., Havekost, U., MacDonald, F., Taylor, D. M., and Dickinson, A. G. (2002). Characterization of Thermodynamic Diversity between Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent Strains and its Theoretical Implications. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 11084-11089.
    Keywords: scrapie: transmission, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0020
  296. South Dakota Department of Fish, Game and Park and Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (2003). Chronic Wasting Disease Update. 1-3.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Control/Prevention, White-tailed Deer, Mule Deer, Elk
    Call Number: CWD0298
    Notes: These two concise website articles update the status of CWD. The one piece summaries the deer heard monitoring efforts in Florida from July 02 thru July 03. The other piece summaries the July 2002 results of CWD testing in South Dakota. The website is located at http://wildflorida.org/cwd/ and http://www.state.sd.us/gfp/divisionwildlife/hunting/BigGame/CWDresults.htm
  297. Spengler, D. Pcb as a cause of a wasting disease in sheep [German]. Tierarztliche Umschau. 48[12], 800-806. 1993.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, case discussion/chronic wasting disease: etiology, case discussion/sheep/goats
    Call Number: CWD0271
    Notes: in German
  298. Spouge, John (1997). Assessment of risk from BSE carcasses in landfills. Overview of risks from BSE via environmental pathways for the environment agency 1-22.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: human risk, Great Britain epidemic, cattle, epidemiology
    Call Number: CWD0232
  299. Spraker, T. R., Miller, M. W., Williams, E. S., Adrian, W. J., Schoonveld, G. G., and Spowart, R. A. Spongiform Encephalopathy in Free-ranging Cervids in Colorado. Junge, Randall E. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Wildlife Disease Association, American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians , 515. 1995.
    Keywords: Spongiform Encephalopathy: clinical signs, case discussion, mule deer, elk, white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0174
  300. Spraker, T. R., Miller, M. W., Williams, E. S., Getzy, D. M., Adrain, W. J., Schoonveld, G. G., and Spowart, R. A. (1994). Chronic wasting disease in Free-ranging Deer and Elk in Larimer County, Colorado, 1981-1993: Clinical, Pathological, and Epizootiological Observations. Wildlife Disease Association Conference, 43rd Annual Conference was held in Monterey, California, 17-22 July 1994 69-70.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: case discussion, epidemiology, mule deer, elk, white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0183
  301. Spraker, T. R., Miller, M. W., Williams, E. S., Getzy, D. M., Adrian, W. J., Schoonveld, G. G., Spowart, R. A., Orourke, K. I., Miller, J. M., and Merz, P. A. Spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 33[1], 1-6. 1997.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, case discussion/mule deer/white-tailed deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0129
    Notes: Reports the clinical, pathological, and epizoological observations on 49 cases of naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy in mule deer, white-tailed deer and elk. Clinical signs include loss of fear of humans, ataxia, marked weakness, inability to stand, dehydration, rough dull haircoat, excessive salivation, drooping of head and ears, severe emaciation. Describes histological lesions in a variety of organ systems but predominately in the brain (neurohistological lesions). Mode of transmission unknown but circumstantial evidence and experimental data implicate animal-to-animal transmission. Raises concerns over artificial feeding stations as an exacerbation of the problem.
  302. Spraker, T. R., O'Rourke, K. I., Balachandran, A., Zink, R. R., Cummings, B. A., Miller, M. W., and Powers, B. H. Validation of monoclonal antibody f99/97.6.1 For immunohistochemical staining of brain and tonsil in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 14[1], 3-7. 2002.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: diagnosis/prion protein: detection/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0134
    Notes: Evaluates the usefulness of monoclonal antibody-based IHC assay for detection of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) in mule deer with chronic wasting disease. This technique detected PrPres in brain tissues of the 100 CWD-positive mule deer and in the tonsil sections of 99 of these deer. Concludes that using the MAb protocol to immunostain tonsil tissue may be adequate to detect CWD, which may facilitate the ability to diagnose CWD in large surveys of cervids.
  303. Spraker, T. R., Zink, R. R., Cummings, B. A., and et al. (2002). Distribution of Protease-resistant Prion Protein and Sponiform Encephalopthay in Free-Ranging Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with Chronic Wasting Disease. Veterinary Pathology 39, 546-556.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Diagnosis, Mule Deer
    Call Number: CWD0308
    Notes: Serial sections of the brain and the palatine tonsils were examined in thirty-five hunter-killed mule deer using the method of immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Based on the IHC results, the tissue samples were placed in 1 of 4 categories. It appears that the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV) is the most consistent single neuoanatomic site of detectable PrPres.
  304. Spraker, T. R., Zink, R. R., Cummings, B. A., Wild, M. A., Miller, M. W., and O'Rourke, K. I. Comparison of histological lesions and immunohistochemical staining of proteinase-resistant prion protein in a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy of free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with those of chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer. Veterinary Pathology. 39[1], 110-119. 2002.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0137
    Notes: Describes in detail the nature, topographic distribution, and severity of histological lesions in tissues from major organ systems of free-ranging deer with a naturally occurring spongiform encephalopathy and those of captive deer with CWD. Systems examined include the nervous, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, urogenital as well as the integument, the eyes, and fetal tissues. Finds strong evidence that a naturally occurring SE in free-ranging deer is indistinguishable morphologically from CWD in the terminal stages.
  305. Stack, M. J., Keyes, P., and Scott, A. (1996). The Diagnosis of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Scrapie by the Detection of Fibrils and the Abnormal Protein Isoform. In 'Prion Diseases'. (H. Baker and R. M. Ridley.Eds. ) pp. 85-103. (Humana Press Inc.: Totowa, NJ.)
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/scrapie: diagnosis/prion protein: detection, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0288
  306. Stites, D., Garfin, D., and Prusiner, S. (1979). The immunology of scrapie. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 211-221. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: scrapie: immunology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0121
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  307. Stoltze, L., Rezaei, H., Jung, G., and et. al. (2003). CD4+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Prion Proteins. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 60, 629-638.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: immunology/prion protein: genetics, species barrier/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0305
  308. Strauch, D. The Current Regulation of the European Union for the Disposal of Dead Animals, Parts of them, Confiscates etc., Based on EEC Directive 90/667 and Others . Dezinfekcifa, Dezinsekcija, Deratizacija 329-339.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: control/prevention
    Call Number: CWD0252
  309. Tagliavini, F., Prelli, F., Giaaccone, G., Forloni, G., Salmona, M., Piccardo, P., Ghetti, B., Frangione, B., and Bugiani, O. (1996). Methods for Studying Prion Protein Amyloid. In 'Methods in Molecular Medicine: Prion Diseases'. (H. F. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 265-283. (Humana Press, Inc.: Totowa, New Jersey.)
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, detection, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0295
  310. Tateishi, J., Sato, Y., Koga, M., Ohta, M., and Kuroiwa, Y. (1979). A transmissible variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with kuru plaques. In 'Slow transmissible disease of the nervous system Vol. 2'. (S. Prusiner and W. HadlowEds. ) pp. 175-183. (Academic Press: New York.)
    Keywords: human prion disease: CJD, kuru/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0120
    Notes: Volume 2: Pathogenesis, Immunology, virology, and molecular biology of the spongiform encephalopathies. Based on an international symposium held at the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana, October 1978.
  311. Taylor, D. (2002). Inactivation of the BSE Agent. C. R. Biologies 325, 75-76.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control/prion protein: inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0242
  312. Taylor, D., Woodgate, S., and Atkinson, M. Inactivation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent by rendering procedures. Veterinary Record 137, 605-610. 1995.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, prevention/control/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0009
  313. Taylor, D. M. Exposure to, and Inactivation of, the Unconventional Agents that Cause Transmissible Degenerative Encephalopathies . Baker, H. and Ridley, R. M. Methods in Molecular Medicine: Prion Disease. Tolowa, NJ, Humana Press Inc.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: human risk/prion protein: inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0250
  314. Taylor, D. M. (1996). Exposure to, and Inactivation of, the Unconventional Agents that Cause Transmissible Degenerative Encephalopathies. In 'Prion Diseases'. (H. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 105-118. (Humana Press Inc.: Totowa, NJ.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, prevention/control/prion protein: inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0291
  315. Taylor, D. M. (1999). Inactivation of prions by physical and chemical means. Journal of Hospital Infection 43, s69-s76.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0208
  316. Taylor, D. M. (2000). Inactivation of Transmissible Degenerative Encephalopathy Agents: A Review. The Veterinary Journal 159, 10-17.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: control/prevention, Scrapie: control/prevention, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: control/prevention
    Call Number: CWD0222
  317. Taylor, D. M., Fernie, K., McConnell, I., and Steele, P. J. (1998). Observations of thermostable subpopulationsof the unconventional agents that cause transmissible degenerative encephalopathies. Veterinary Microbiology 64, 33-38.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology, inactivation
    Call Number: CWD0220
  318. Taylor, DM and Woodgate, SL (2003). Rendering Practices and Inactivation of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Agents. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 297-310.
    Keywords: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Control/Prevention, Chronic Wasting Disease: Control/Prevention, Scrapie: Control/Prevention, Human Prion Diseases: New Variant CJD
    Call Number: CWD0330
    Notes: Detailed article about rendering practices, both current and past. Explains how cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob, joined with the raise of chronic wasting disease have changed rendering practices. Suggestions for future procedural changes are highlighted including a discussion questioning the safety of using tallow and its by-products. Evidence is outlined showing that traditional rendering practices do not inactivate the infectious agents of the BSE or scrapies.
  319. Taylor, K. C. (1996). Disposal of rendered specified offal. The Veterinary Record 267.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0224
  320. Thackray, A. M., Klein, M. A., Aguzzi, A., and Bujdoso, R. (2002). Chronic Subclinical Prion Disease Induced by Low-Dose Inoculm . Journal of Virology 76, 2510-2517.
    Keywords: prion protein: detection/scrapie: etiology, transmission, diagnosis/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0246
  321. The Ceres Forum of the Center for the Food and Nutrition Policy at Georgetown University and the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges. International Symposium on Spongiform Encephalopathies: Generating Rational Policy in the Face of Public Fears.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis, pathology/chronic wasting disease: epidemiology/scrapie: etiology/human prion disease: CJD, new variant CJD/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: pathology, prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0303
  322. Tobler, I., Gaus, S., Deboer, T., Achermann, P., Fischer, M., Rulicke, T. Moser M., Oesch, B., McBride, P., and Manson, J. Altered circadian activity rhythms and sleep in mice devoid of prion protein. Nature , 639-642. 1996.
    Keywords: prion protein: biology/human prion disease: fatal familial insomnia/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0024
  323. Travis, D and Miller, M (2003). A Short Review of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, and Guidelines for Managing Risks Associated with Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Cervids in Zoos. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34, 125-133.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: control/prevention, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, New variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Feline spongiform encephalopathy, Scrapie, Transmissible mink encephalopathy/Affected Species: zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0347
    Notes: Short review of the forms of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that concerns zoo and wildlife veterinarians and wildlife biologists. These disease variants are scrapie, BSE, vCJD, TME, FSE with a specific focus on CWD of cervids in North America. The author discusses risk management strategies, surveillance of free-ranging cervids on zoo grounds, eradication, and response plans. The author concludes the zoologic veterinarian community needs to stay informed about TSEs in order to protect their institutions and collections. This article also includes a quick fact sheet about CWD.
  324. Tyrrell, D. A. and Taylor, K. C. (1996). Handling the BSE Epidemic in Great Britain. In 'Prion Diseases '. (H. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 175-198.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, prevention/control, human risk/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0292
  325. United States Department of Agriculture. About scrapie. Journal-of-the-American-Veterinary-Medical-Association 220[9], 1283. 2002.
    Keywords: scrapie: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0138
  326. Van Deelen, TR. National News: Chronic Wasting Disease and the Science in Support of the Ban on Baiting and Feeding Deer. Feb 14, 2003.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: Control/Prevention
    Call Number: CWD0317
    Notes: Article from the Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance web site reviews the scientific literature that supports the ban on baiting and feeding deer as an effective means to reduce the risk of spreading CWD. The article integrates evidence from various studies and papers from a diverse pool of scientific disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, wildlife ecology, biochemistry and physiology. There are over 30 articles cited.
  327. van Gelderen, C, Gimeno, EJ, and Schudel, AA (2003). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in South America: a regional preventive approach. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 227-236.
    Call Number: CWD0358
  328. Weber, David J. and Rutala, William A. (2002). Managing the risk of nosocomial transmission of prion diseases. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 15, 421-425.
    Keywords: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: etiology, prevention/control, Variable Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
    Call Number: CWD0229
  329. Wells, G., Hawkins, S., Green, R., Austin, A., Dexter, I., Spencer, Y., Chaplin, M., Stack, M., and Dawson, M. Preliminary observations on the pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): an update. Veterinary Record 142, 103-106. 1998.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: etiology/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0079
  330. Wells, G. and McGill, I. Recently described scrapie-like encephalopathies of animals: Case definitions. Research in Veterinary Science 53, 1-10. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: diagnosis/zoo animals/domestic cats
    Call Number: CWD0023
  331. Wells, G., Scott, A., Johnson, C., Gunning, R., Hancock, R., Jeffrey, M., Dawson, M., and Bradley, R. A novel progressive spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Veterinary Record 121, 419-420. 1987.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: pathology/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0029
  332. Westaway, D. (1996). Transgenic Approaches to Prion "Species-Barrier" Effects. In 'Methods in Molecular Medicine: Prion Diseases'. (H. F. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 251-263. (Humana Press, Inc.: Totowa, New Jersey.)
    Keywords: prion proein: biology, genetics, species barrier/spongiform encephalopathy: species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0294
  333. Wild, M. A. (1995). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Mammals Research, Project No. W-153-R-8. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 119-135.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0189
  334. Wild, M. A. (1997). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Mammals Research, Project W-153-R-10 . Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 101-102.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0181
  335. Wild, M. A and Graffam, W. S. (1994). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Mammals Research, Project No. W-153-R-7. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 65-80.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology, prevention/control/elk/deer
    Call Number: CWD0198
  336. Wild, M. A., Miller, M. W., Maynard, B. J., and Magnuson, D. R. (1992). Animal and Pen Support Facilities for Mammals Research, Project No. W-153-R-3. Wildlife Research Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife 109-122.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology
    Call Number: CWD0194
  337. Wild, M. A., Spraker, T. R., Sigurdson, C. J., O'Rourke, K. I., and Miller, M. W. (2002). Preclinical Diagnosis of Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Using Tonsillar Biopsy . Journal of General Virology 83, 2629-2634.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: diagnosis, epidemiology, mule deer, white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0205
  338. Wilesmith, J. An epidemiologist's view of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 343, 357-361. 1994.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, etiology, epidemiology
    Call Number: CWD0025
  339. Wilesmith, J., Ryan, J., and Atkinson, M. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Epidemiological studies on the origin. Veterinary Record 128, 199-203. 1991.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, etiology, epidemiology, /cattle
    Call Number: CWD0031
  340. Wilesmith, J., Wells, G., Cranwell, M., and Ryan J. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Epidemiological studies. Veterinary Record 123, 638-644. 1988.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiology, clinical signs/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0030
  341. Wilesmith, J., Wells, G., Ryan, J., Gavier-Widen, D., and Simmons, M. A cohort study to examine maternally-associated risk factors for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Veterinary Record 141, 239-243. 1997.
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, genetics/cattle
    Call Number: CWD0011
  342. Wilesmith, J. W. (1996). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Methods of Analyzing the Epidemic in the United Kingdom. In 'Prion Diseases'. (H. Baker and R. M. RidleyEds. ) pp. 155-173. (Humana Press Inc.: Totowa, NJ.)
    Keywords: bovine spongiform encephalopathy: Great Britain epidemic, epidemiology, transmission
    Call Number: CWD0290
  343. Will, R., Ironside, J., Zeidler, M., Cousens, S., Estibeiro, K., Alperovitch, A., Poser, S., Pocchiari, M., Hofman, A., and Smith, P. A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK. Lancet 347, 921-925. 1996.
    Keywords: human prion disease: new variant CJD/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0045
  344. Wille, Holger, Prusiner, Stanley B., and Cohen, Fred E. (2000). Scrapie Infectivity is Independent of Amyloid Staining Properties of the N-Terminally Truncated Prion Protein. Journal of Structural Biology 130, 323-338.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology/prion protein: biology, detection, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0258
  345. Williams, A., Lucassen, P., Ritchie, D., and Bruce, M. PrP Desposition, microglial activation, and neuronal apoptosis in murine scrapie. Experimental neurology 144, 433-438. 1997.
    Keywords: prion protein: pathology/scrapie: pathology/lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0044
  346. Williams, E., Miller, M., Kreeger, T., Kahn, R., and Thorne, E. Chronic wasting disease of deer and elk: a review with recommendations for management. Journal of Wildlife Management 66[3], 551-563. 2002.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview, prevention/control/disease modeling/management/mule deer/white-tailed deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0171
    Notes: Recent article reviews current state of knowledge about history, distribution, susceptible species, immunity and natural resistance, clinical signs, detection, epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease. Discusses implications for control strategies, public health concerns, and management.
  347. Williams, E. S. Epizootiology of Cervid Spongiform Encephalopathy (Chronic Wasting Disease) . International Conference of Wildlife Diseases (6th: 1990: Berlin, West Germany. pg. 63. 1990. Ames, Iowa , Wildlife Disease Association .
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: etiology, epidemiology/mule deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0204
    Notes: Examines the age and sex of captive cervids that were diagnosed with chronic wasting disease (CWD). Efforts to eradicate the disease from the facilities failed leading researches to believe CWD is transmitted laterally.
  348. Williams, E. S., Kirkwood, J. K., and Miller, M. W. (2001). Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In 'Infectious diseases of wild mammals'. (E. S. Williams and I. K. BarkerEds. ) pp. 292-301. (Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa.)
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0132
    Notes: Review chapter that covers transmissible mink encephalopathy in non-domestic species, as well as chronic wasting disease. Summarizes history and distribution, etiology, transmission and epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and pathology. In addition, sections are included on control and treatment, public health concerns, and management implications.
  349. Williams, E. S and Miller, M. W. (2002). Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer and Elk in North America . Revue Scientifique et Technique 21, 305-316.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview, human risk
    Call Number: CWD0247
    Notes: Describes general background about chronic wasting disease. Addresses the history of the disease, how it is transmitted and what are the clinical signs. In addition, established and new testing methods are discussed, along with public health concerns. Comments on the kinds of management practices that will be required in the future for controlling the spread the disease.
  350. Williams, E. S., Miller, W. M., Young, S., and Thorne, E. T. Chronic Wasting Disease: A Spongiform Encephalopathy of Mule Deer and Rocky Mountain Elk in Colorado and Wyoming, USA . Osburn, B. I., Castrucci, G., and Schore, C. New and Emerging Infectious Diseases: 12th International Symposium Proceedings, September 8-12, 1992, World Association of Veterinary Microbiologists, Immunologists and Specialists in Infectious Diseases (WAVAI). 249-252. 1992 . University of California, Davis .
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview/elk/mule deer/white-tailed deer
    Call Number: CWD0203
    Notes: Summarizes the most significant features of chronic wasting disease in mule deer and elk in terms of clinical signs and lesions. Disease transmission and the affects CWD will have on wildlife management are discussed. Surveillance of both public and private facilities holding and propagating captive cervids and continued research will be needed to control the spread of this disease.
  351. Williams, E. S. and Neil, P. Epizootiological Features of Chronic Wasting Disease in Mule Deer and Elk. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians . 1985.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: epidemiology/mule deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0188
    Notes: Short informational note which provides basic statistics on the CWD outbreak in captive deer and elk in facilities in Colorado and Wyoming. Reports most affected deer were 3-4 years of age and 90% of deer in the fouley from 1974 to 1985 died of CWD.
  352. Williams, E. S. and Young, S. (1980). Chronic Wasting Disease of Captive Mule Deer. Wildlife Disease Association Conference, Baton Rouge, Louisiana .
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0176
    Notes: Conference held at Louisiana State University, August 19-22, 1980
  353. Williams, E. S. and Young, S. Chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform encephalopathy. Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 16[1], 89-98; 8 ref. 1980.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0131
    Notes: First description of chronic wasting disease in mule deer in Colorado and Wyoming for the time period 1967-1979. Documents clinical signs, clinical pathology, histopathology, gross pathology of CWD. Observations were made at a Fort Collins, Colorado wildlife facility which functions to study nutrition, metabolism and disease in deer and non-domesticated ruminants. Includes discussion of neurotropic retrovirus in 3 mouse studies. CWD first recognized as a distinct clinical syndrome by ecologists studying mule deer in Colorado in 1967. Includes EM slides of central nervous system lesions.
  354. Williams, E. S. and Young, S. Neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). Veterinary-Pathology 30[1], 36-45; 27 ref. 1993.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: pathology/elk/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0056
    Notes: Light microscopy was used to study the central nervous system tissues from 9 mule deer and 6 elk affected with CWD. Describes the CWD lesion characteristics in detail and includes slides of a variety of lesions. Includes a topographical distribution of lesions. Compares and contrasts lesion distribution between CWD, scrapie, and transmissible mink encephalopathy.
  355. Williams, E. S. and Young, S. Spongiform encephalopathies in Cervidae. Revue Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties 11[2], 551-567. 1992.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview/mule deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0089
    Notes: Review article, which details the emergence of chronic wasting disease in mule deer and elk. Reports on the geographic distribution, economic implications, etiology, epistemology, clinical signs, pathology, histopathologies, diagnosis, prevention and control. Concludes no evidence of either immunity to or recovery from CWD and no evidence of any animal protein fed to these animals. Asserts that a strong argument for lateral transmission can be made.
  356. Williams, E. S. and Young, S. Spongiform encephalopathy of Rocky Mountain elk. Journal-of-Wildlife-Diseases 18[4], 465-471; 3 fig.; 7 ref. 1982.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: case discussion/elk
    Call Number: CWD0130
    Notes: Describes CWD in 6 Rocky Mountain Elk in a Fort Collins, Colorado wildlife facility which conducts studies on the nutrition, metabolism and disease in deer and other non-domesticated ruminants. Describes gross lesions, histopathology of the brain, clinical pathology and EM slides of lesions and vacuoles.
  357. Williams, E. S., Young, S., and Marsh, R. F. (1982). Preliminary Evidence of Transmissibility of Chronic Wasting Disease of Mule Deer . Wildlife Disease Association Conference, Madison, Wisconsin Abstract Number 22.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: case discussion, epidemiology, mule deer, elk
    Call Number: CWD0177
  358. Williams, Elizabeth S. (2002). The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: disease risks for North America. The Veterinary Clinics Food Animal Practice 18, 461-473.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/chronic wasting disease: general/overview/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: general/overview/feline spongiform encephalopathy/scrapie: general/overview/transmissible mink encephalopathy: general/overview
    Call Number: CWD0260
  359. Williams, Elizabeth S., Miller, Michael W., and Thorne, E. Tom (2002). Chronic Wasting Disease: Implications and Challenges for Wildlife Managers. Transactions of the 67th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 67, 87-103.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: general/overview, clinical signs, prevention/control, human risk/mule deer/white-tailed deer/elk
    Call Number: CWD0273
    Notes: Review article about CWD, highlighting management strategies and public health concerns. Provides a concise, chronological outline of significant events in the history of CWD.
  360. Williams, ES and Miller, MW (2003). Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in Non-Domestic Animals: Origin, Transmission and Risk Factors. Revue Scientifique et Technique de L Office International Des Epizooties 22, 145-156.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: General overview
    Call Number: CWD0318
    Notes: Explores the occurrence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in non-domestic animals, highlighting transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BSE variants found in felid species and other non-domestic ruminates. Focuses on chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer. The following aspects of the CWD are described: origin, genetics, transmission and epidemiology.
  361. Williams, M. A. Razumovsky A. Y., Selnes, O., Herdman, S., and Hanley, D. F. (1993). CSF Pressure Monitoring and Controlled CSF Drainage via Lumbar Subarachnoid Catheter in Patients with Suspected Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. Annuals of Neurology 34, 257.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0175
  362. Willoughby, K., Kelly, D., Lyon, D., and Wells, G. Spongiform encephalopathy in a captive puma (Felis concolor). Veterinary Record 131, 431-434. 1992.
    Keywords: spongiform encephalopathy: pathology, case discussion /zoo animals
    Call Number: CWD0008
  363. Wolfe, L., Conner, M., Baker, T., Dreitz, V., Burnham, K., Williams, E., Hobbs, N., and Miller, M. Evaluation of antemortem sampling to estimate chronic wasting disease prevalence in free-ranging mule deer. Journal of Wildlife Management 66[3], 564-573. 2002.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: diagnosis/mule deer
    Call Number: CWD0170
    Notes: Explores antemorem (live animal) testing of mule deer using free-ranging herds and compares data with estimated CWD from harvest-based survey data. Sampled 2 native deer populations in Northern Colorado during April-June and August-October 2001 while on winter and transistional ranges. Used Various tonsillar biopsy sampling techniques from anesthetized deer and preserved tonsillar tissue in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Examined biopsies using histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) using MAb F99/97.6.1. Concluded tonsillar biopsy IHC appears reliable to detect chronic wasting disease in live mule deer and estimating prevalence.
  364. Wood, J., Lund, L., and Done, S. The natural occurrence of scrapie in moufflon. Veterinary Record 130, 25-27. 1992.
    Keywords: Scrapie: pathology, case discussion/wildlife
    Call Number: CWD0006
  365. Woodbury, Murray R. Chronic wasting disease - the North American situation. Proceedings of a deer course for veterinarians. [18], 47-51. May 2001.
    Call Number: CWD0249
    Notes: Provides overview on the history and current state of CWD in Canada. Discussion includes clinical signs, geographic distribution and transmission.
  366. Wopfner, F., Weidenhofer, G., Schneider, R., von Brunn, A., Gilch, S., Schwarz, T. F., Werner, T., and Schatzl, M. Analysis of 27 mammalian and 9 avian prps reveals high conservation of flexible regions of the prion protein. Journal of Molecular Biology. 289[5], 1163-1178. 1999.
    Keywords: prion protein: genetics, species barrier
    Call Number: CWD0270
  367. World Health Organization (1997). Medicinal and other products and human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 75, 505-513.
    Keywords: human prion disease: prevention/control, CJD, new variant CJD/bovine spongiform encephalopathy: human risk
    Call Number: CWD0223
  368. Yam, P. (2003). The pathological protein: mad cow, chronic wasting, and other deadly prion diseases. (Copernicus Books: New York.)
    Keywords: Prion Theory: history, general overview, biology, genetics, pathogenicity/Chronic Wasting Disease, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, New variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Kuru, Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: transmission, human risk,
    Call Number: CWD0371
    Notes: Click on link for description of book. http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0387955089/qid=1073440594/sr=1-1/ref=sr_1_1/002-0519633-9572851?v=glance&s=books
  369. Yam, P (2003). Shoot the Deer. Scientific American 288, 38-43.
    Keywords: Chronic Wasting Disease: general/overview, human risk, etiology
    Call Number: CWD0342
    Notes: A good read for the non-scientist. The strategies used by Wisconsin to manage the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) are discussed. An overview of the prion is giving, explaining the part it plays in causing CWD and describing why its hardy resistance to standard sterilization and disinfections procedures makes controlling the spread of the disease a challenge. The health risk to other species including humans is addressed.
  370. Yamamoto, M., Horiuchi, M., Ishiguro, N., Shinagawa, M., Matsuo, T., and Kaneko, K. (2001). Glycidol degrades scrapie mouse prion protein. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 63, 983-990.
    Keywords: prion protein: inactivation/spongiform encephalopathy: prevention/control
    Call Number: CWD0216
  371. Ye, X., Scallet, A. C., and Carp, R. I. (1997). The 139H Scrapie Agent procedures hypothalamic neurotoxicity and pancreatic islet histopathology: electron microscopic studies. Neurotoxicology 18, 533-546.
    Keywords: scrapie: etiology, pathology /lab animals
    Call Number: CWD0274
  372. Young, S and Slocombe, RF (2003). Prion-associated spongiform encephalopthy in an imported Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temmincki). Austrailian Veterinary Journal 81, 39-40.
    Keywords: Spongiform Encephalopathy: case discussion, pathology
    Call Number: CWD0367
    Notes: Describes detailed necropsy findings from a 10-year-old Asiatic golden cat found dead in its enclosure at the Melbourne Zoo. Prior to is death, its clinical health issues were considered minor. The immunohistochemical staining revealed PrP antigen in CNS samples. Since 1986, spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in at least ten species of zoo animals in the Bovidea and Felidae family. As similarly suspected in previously diagnosed feline cases, it is thought this animal contracted the disease by ingesting BSE-infected cattle meat.
  373. Zerman, DH, Johnson, DD, Jenny, Al, Warg, JV, Holland, S., and Taylor, WD Chronic Wasting Disease Identified On Two Commercial Elk Facilities in South Dakota. 68.
    Keywords: chronic wasting disease: case discussion/elk
    Call Number: CWD0287
    Notes: Indentifies two CWD cases in South Dakota. These reports are considered the first cases in South Dakota and possibly the first cases in captive elk ranches. Between both brief reports clinical signs, histopathology, and bacterial culture results are described.
 

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