National Wildlife Health Center

...advancing wildlife and ecosystem health

1998 Avian Botulism Outbreak


Map of Avian Botulism Breakouts

1. Delevan National Wildlife Refuge
Colusa County, California

  • Mortalities:1103
  • Species: Waterfowl, gulls, pelicans
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
2. Mid Hacienda Flood Plain
Kern County, California

  • Mortalities: 16,367
  • Species: American coot, waterfowl
  • Confirmed: yes
  • Ongoing: No
3. Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge
Imperial County, California

  • Mortalities: 500
  • Species: Pelicans, gulls, egrets
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: Yes
4. Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge
Sisiyou County, California

  • Mortalities: 2980
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
5. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge
Adams County, Colorado

  • Mortalities: 21
  • Species: Canadian geese
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
6. Camas National Wildlife Refuge
Jefferson County, Idaho

  • Mortalities: 122
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
7. Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area
Barton County, Kansas

  • Mortalities: 2304
  • Species: Waterfowl, egrets, pelicans
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
8. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge
Phillips County, Montana

  • Mortalities: 4000 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
9. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Sheridan County, Montana

  • Mortalities: 2230
  • Species: Coots, waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
10. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Burleigh/Kidder Counties, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 773
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
11. Baumgartner Lake
Emmons County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 2603
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
12. Horsehead Lake
Kidder County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 7258
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
13. Lake McKenna
Logan County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 100
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
14. Logan General Management Area
Logan County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 103
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
15. Salzer Wildlife Protection Area
McIntosh County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 115
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
16. Lake Venturia
McIntosh County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 266
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
17. Williston Sewage Lagoons
McKenzie County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 104
  • Species: Mallards
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
18. Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge
Ramsey County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 4114
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
19. Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge
Renville County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 6500 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl, shorebirds
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
20. Carson Lake, Humboldt River Delta
Churchill County, Nevada

  • Mortalities: 2072
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
21. Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge
Churchill County, Nevada

  • Mortalities: 1667
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
22. Sand Lake
Brown County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 146
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
23. Mud Lake
Brown County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 45
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
24. Long Lake
Codington County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 1665
  • Species: Waterfowl, shorebirds
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
25. Collins Slough
Hand County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 5500 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
26. Blue Blanket Wetlands
Walworth County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 3300 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
27. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge
Box Elder County, Utah

  • Mortalities: 10,532
  • Species: Mallards
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
28. Fort Dent Park
King County, Washington

  • Mortalities: 75 (est.)
  • Species: Mallards
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
29. Market Lake Wildlife Mgmt. Area
Jefferson County, Idaho

  • Mortalities: 180 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
30. American Falls Reservoir
Power County, Idaho

  • Mortalities: 5000 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
31. Tewaukon Complex District Area
Richland County, North Dakota

  • Mortalities: 3873
  • Species: Waterfowl, Shorebirds
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
32. Lake McConaughy
Keith County, Nebraska

  • Mortalities: 1000
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
33. San Francisco Bay Bird Observatory
Santa Clara County, California

  • Mortalities: 429
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
34. Albuquerque
Bernalillo County, New Mexico

  • Mortalities: 55
  • Species: Geese
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
35. Wetlands near Hatch
Dona Ana County, New Mexico

  • Mortalities: 2000 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: Yes
  • Ongoing: No
36. Sunnyvale Water Treatment Plant
Santa Clara County, California

  • Mortalities: 573
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
37. Flight Lake
Potter County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 401
  • Species: Waterfowl
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
38. Morelock's Slough
McPherson County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 351
  • Species: Waterfowl, shorebirds
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
39. Hyde Slough
Hughes County, South Dakota

  • Mortalities: 100 (est.)
  • Species: Waterfowl, shorebirds
  • Confirmed: No
  • Ongoing: No
 

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Page Last Modified: May 19, 2016