National Wildlife Health Center

...advancing wildlife and ecosystem health

Wildlife Species Affected by West Nile Virus

Last Updated: 9-04-2003

Disclaimer: Many of those listed are species provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention based on reports from state health departments or are results released by other state and federal agencies. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center has not verified the identification of the species provided by these agencies. For a list of dead birds that have tested positive for WNV, please visit the CDC website:

Note: Species included in this list are wild animals unless followed by a "(c)", which denotes either a captive or farmed animal(s). Virus or viral RNA was detected in animal tissue unless followed by an "(a)", which denotes detectable antibodies only have been reported.


Order Anseriformes

Family Anatidae
Wood Duck-Aix sponsa
Eurasian Wigeon-Anas penelope (c)
Mallard-Anas platyrhynchos
Bronze-winged Duck (Spectacled Duck)-Anas specularis (c)
Domestic Goose-Anser chinensis (c)(a)
Canvasback-Aythya valisineria
Canada Goose-Branta Canadensis
Barnacle Goose-Branta leucopsis (c)(a)
Emperor Goose-Chen canagica (c)
Greater Magellan Goose (Andean Goose)-Chloephagapicta leucoptera (c)(a)
Abyssinian Blue-winged Goose-Cyanochen cyanopterus (c)(a)
Tundra Swan-Cygnus columbianus (c)
Trumpeter Swan-Cygnus Cygnus buccinator (c)(a)
Mute Swan-Cygnus olor
Rosybilled Duck-Netta peposaca (c)(a)
Ruddy Duck-Oxyura jamaicensis


Order Apodiformes

Family Apodidae
Chimney Swift-Chaetura pelagica

Family Trochilidae
Ruby-throated Hummingbird-Archilochus colubris

Order Caprimulgiformes

Family Caprimulgidae
Common Nighthawk-Chordeiles minor

Order Casuariiformes

Family Dromaiidae
Emu-Dromaius novaehollandiae (c)

Order Charadriiformes

Family Charadriidae
Ruddy Turnstone-Arenaria interpres
Killdeer-Charadrius vociferus
Piping Plover-Charadrius melodus

Family Laridae
Herring Gull-Larus argentatus
Laughing Gull-Larus atricilla
Ring-billed Gull-Larus delawarensis
Great Black-backed Gull-Larus marinus
Black Skimmer-Rhynchops niger
Grey Gull-Larus modestus (c)(a)
Inca Tern-Larosterna inca (c)(a)

Order Ciconiformes

Family Ardeidae
Yellow-crowned Night-heron-Nyctanassa violacea (c)
Black-crowned Night-heron-Nycticorax nycticorax (c)
Great Blue Heron-Ardea herodias
Green Heron-Butorides virescens
Least Bittern-Ixobrychus exilis

Family Cathartidae
Turkey Vulture-Cathartes aura
Black Vulture-Coragyps atratus
King Vulture-Sarcoramphus papa (c)(a)

Family Ciconiidae
Saddle-billed Stork-Ephippiorhynchos senegalensis (c)(a)
Marabou Stork-Leptopilos crumeniferus (c)(a)
Lesser Adjutant Stork-Leptoptilos javanicus (c)(a)

Family Phoenicopteridae
Chilean Flamingo-Phoenicopterus chilensis (c)
Greater Flamingo (American)-Phoenicopterus ruber ruber (c)

Family Threskiornithidae
Scarlet Ibis-Eudocimus ruber (c)
Waldrapp-Geronticus eremita (c)(a)

Order Columbiformes

Family Columbidae
White-crowned Pigeon-Columba leucocephala
Rock Dove (Feral Pigeon)-Columba livia
Mauritius Pink Pigeon-Columba mayeri (c)(a)
Common Ground-Dove-Columbina passerina
Eurasian Collared-Dove-Streptopelia decaocto
White-winged Dove-Zenaida asiatica
Mourning Dove-Zenaida macroura
Luzon Pigeon (Bleeding Heart Pigeon)-Gallicolumba luzonica (c)(a)
Inca Dove-Columbina inca

Order Coraciiformes

Family Alcedinidae
Belted Kingfisher-Ceryle alcyon

Order Cuculiformes

Family Cuculidae
Yellow-billed Cuckoo-Coccyzus americanus

Order Falconiformes

Family Accipitridae
Cooper's Hawk-Accipiter cooperii
Northern Goshawk-Accipiter gentilis
Sharp-shinned Hawk-Accipiter striatus
Golden Eagle-Aquila chrysaetos
Red-tailed Hawk-Buteo jamaicensis
Rough-legged Hawk-Buteo lagopus (c)
Red-shouldered Hawk-Buteo lineatus
Broad-winged Hawk-Buteo platypterus
Swainson's Hawk-Buteo swainsoni
Northern Harrier-Circus cyaneus
Swallow-tailed Kite-Elanoides forficatus
Bald Eagle-Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Mississippi Kite-Ictinia mississippiensis
Osprey-Pandion haliaetus
Harris' Hawk-Parabuteo unicinctus (c)

Family Falconidae
Merlin-Falco columbarius
Prairie Falcon-Falco mexicanus
Peregrine Falcon-Falco peregrinus
American Kestrel-Falco sparverius

Order Galliformes

Family Numididae
Crested Guineafowl-Guttera pucherani (c)(a)

Family Odontophoridae
Northern Bobwhite-Colinus virginianus

Family Phasianidae
Chukar-Alectoris chukar (c)(a)
Ruffed Grouse-Bonasa umbellus
Domestic Chicken (Red Junglefowl)-Gallus gallus (c)
Green Junglefowl-Gallus varius (c)(a)
Impeyan (Himalayan) Pheasant (Monal)-Lophophorus impeyanus (c)
Bulwer's Wattled Pheasant-Lophura bulweri (c)(a)
Turkey (domestic and wild)-Meleagris gallopavo
Ring-necked Pheasant-Phasianus colchicus
Mount Peacock-Pheasant-Polypectron inopinatum (c)(a)
Crested Partridge-Rollulus roulroul (c)(a)
Blyth's Tragopan-Tragopan blythii (c)
Argus Pheasant (unspecified)-various (c)(a)
Greater Sage Grouse-Centrocerus urophasianus

Order Gaviformes

Family Caprimulgidae
Common Loon-Gavia immer

Order Gruiformes

Family Gruidae
Demoiselle Crane-Anthropoides virgo (c)(a)
West African Crowned Crane-Balearica pavonina pavonina (a)
Wattled Crane-Bugeranus carunculatus (c)(a)
Whooping Crane-Grus americana (c)(a)
Mississippi Sandhill Crane-Grus canadensis pulla (c)
Red-crowned Crane-Grus japonensis (c)(a)
Siberian Crane-Grus leucogeranus (c)(a)
Hooded Crane-Grus monacha (c)(a)
White-naped Crane-Grus vipio (c)(a)
Black-necked Crane-Grus nigricollis (c)(a)

Family Rallidae
Virginia Rail-Rallus limicola

Order Musophagiformes

Family Musophagidae
Lady Ross' Turaco (Plantain-Eater)-Musophaga rossae (c)(a)

Order Passeriformes

Family Bombycillidae
Cedar Waxwing-Bombycilla cedrorum

Family Cardinalidae
Northern Cardinal-Cardinalis cardinalis
Blue Grosbeak-Guiraca caerulea(a)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak-Pheucticus ludovicianus
Dickcissel-Spiza americana

Family Corvidae
Western Scrub-Jay-Aphelocoma californica
American Crow-Corvus brachyrhynchos
Common Raven-Corvus corax
Fish Crow-Corvus ossifragus
Blue Jay-Cyanocitta cristata
Steller's Jay-Cyanocitta stelleri
Black-billed Magpie-Pica hudsonia (c)

Family Emberizidae
Song Sparrow-Melospiza melodia
Savannah Sparrow-Passerculus sandwichensis
Fox Sparrow-Passerella iliaca
Eastern Towhee-Pipilo erythrophthalmus
Field Sparrow-Spizella pusilla

Family Estrildidae
Zebra Finch-Taeniophygia guttata (c)

Family Fringillidae
American Goldfinch-Carduelis tristis
House Finch-Carpodacus mexicanus
Purple Finch-Carpodacus purpureus
Evening Grosbeak-Coccothraustes vespertinus
European Goldfinch-Carduelis carduelis (c)

Family Hirundinidae
Barn Swallow-Hirundo rustica
Purple Martin-Progne subis
Tree Swallow-Tachycineta bicolor

Family Icteridae
Red-Winged Blackbird-Agelaius phoeniceus
Rusty Blackbird-Euphagus carolinus
Brewer's Blackbird-Euphagus cyanocephalus
Baltimore Oriole-Icterus galbula
Brown-headed Cowbird-Molothrus ater
Boat-tailed Grackle-Quiscalus major
Great-tailed Grackle-Quiscalus mexicanus
Common Grackle-Quiscalus quiscula

Family Laniidae
Loggerhead Shrike-Lanius ludovicianus

Family Mimidae
Gray Catbird-Dumetella carolinensis
Northern Mockingbird-Mimus polyglottos
Brown Thrasher-Toxostoma rufum

Family Paridae
Tufted Titmouse-Baeolophus bicolor
Varied Tit-Parus varius (c)
Black-capped Chickadee-Poecile atricapilla
Carolina Chickadee-Poecile carolinensis

Family Parulidae
Black-throated Blue Warbler-Dendroica caerulescens
Yellow-rumped Warbler-Dendroica coronata
Yellow Warbler-Dendroica petechia
Blackpoll Warbler-Dendroica striata
Common Yellowthroat-Geothlypis trichas
Kentucky Warbler-Oporornis formosus
Northern Parula-Parula americana
Ovenbird-Seiurus aurocapillus
Northern Waterthrush-Seiurus noveboracensis
Nashville Warbler-Vermivora ruficapilla
Canada Warbler-Wilsonia canadensis
Hooded Warbler-Wilsonia citrina

Family Passeridae
House Sparrow-Passer domesticus

Family Sylviidae
White-crested Laughingthrush-Garrulax leucolophus (c)(a)

Family Sittadae
White-breasted Nuthatch-Sitta carolinensis

Family Sturnidae
European Starling-Sturnus vulgaris

Family Thraupidae
Palm Tanager-Thraupis palmarum (c)

Family Troglodytidae
Carolina Wren-Thryothaurus ludovicianus
Winter Wren-Troglodytes troglodytes

Family Turdidae
Veery-Catharus fuscescens
Hermit Thrush-Catharus guttatus
Gray-cheeked Thrush-Catharus minimus
Swainson's Thrush-Catharus ustulatus
Wood Thrush-Hylocichla mustelina
Eastern Bluebird-Sialia sialis
American Robin-Turdus migratorius

Family Tyrannidae
Traill's Flycatcher-Empidonax traillii/alnorum
Eastern Phoebe-Sayornis phoebe
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher-Tyrannus forficatus
Eastern Kingbird-Tyrannus tyrannus

Family Vireonidae
Black-whiskered Vireo-Vireo altiloquus
Warbling Vireo-Vireo gilvus
Red-eyed Vireo-Vireo olivaceus

Order Pelecaniformes

Family Pelecanidae
American White Pelican-Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Brown Pelican-Pelicanus occidentalis (c)(a)

Family Phalacrocoracidae
Double-crested Cormorant-Phalacrocorax auritus
Guanay Cormorant-Phalacrocorax bougainvillei (c)

Order Piciformes

Family Picidae
Red-headed Woodpecker-Melanerpes erythrocephalus
Downy Woodpecker-Picoides pubescens
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker-Sphyrapicus varius

Order Podicipediformes

Family Podicipedidae
Pied-billed Grebe-Podilymbus podiceps

Order Psittaciformes

Family Cacatuidae
Cockatoo (unspecified)-Cacatua spp. (c)
Cockatiel-Nymphicus hollandicus (c)

Family Psittacidae
Red-crowned Parrot-Amazona viridigenalis (c)
Macaw (unspecified)-Ara spp. (c)
Budgerigar-Melopsittacus undulatus (c)
Lorikeet spp.-Tricheglossus spp. (c)

Order Spheniscformes

Family Spheniscidae
Black-footed (Jackass) Penguin-Spheniscus demersus (c)
Magellan Penguin-Spheniscus humboldti (c)(a)

Order Strigiformes

Family Strigidae
Northern Saw-whet Owl-Aegolius acadicus
Boreal Owl-Aegolius funereous (c)
Short-eared Owl-Asio flammeus
Verreaux's Eagle Owl (Milky Eagle Owl)-Bubo lacteus(c)(a)
Great Horned Owl-Bubo virginianus
Snowy Owl-Nyctea scandiaca (c)
Eastern Screech Owl-Otus asio
Tawny Owl-Strix aluco(c)
Great Grey Owl-Strix nebulosa (c)
Spotted Owl-Strix occidentalis (c)
Barred Owl-Strix varia
Northern Hawk Owl-Surnia ulula (c)

Family Tytonidae
Barn Owl-Tyto alba

Order Struthioniformes

Family Struthionidae
Ostrich-Struthio camelis (c)(a)


Order Artiodactyla

Family Bovidae
Domestic Cattle-Bos taurus (c)
Mountain Goat-Oreamnos americanus (c)
Domestic (Suffolk) Sheep-Ovis aries (c)

Family Camelidae
Llama-Lama glama (c)
Alpaca (Suri)-Lama pacos (c)

Family Cervidae
White-tailed Deer-Odocoileus virgninianus
Reindeer-Rangifer tarnadus (c)
Mule Deer-Odocoileus hemionus

Family Suidae
Babirusa-Babyrousa babyrousa (c)(a)

Order Carnivora

Family Canidae
Domestic Dog-Canis familiaris (c)
Timber Wolf-Canis lupus (c)

Family Felidae
Domestic Cat (feral)-Felis catus

Family Mustelidae
Striped Skunk-Mephitis mephitis

Family Phocidae
Harbor Seal-Phoca vitulina (c)

Family Procyonidae
Red Panda-Ailurus fulgens fulgens (c)(a)

Family Ursidae
Black Bear-Ursus americanus(a)

Order Chiroptera

Family Vespertilionidae
Big Brown Bat-Eptesicus fuscus
Little Brown Bat-Myotis lucifugus

Order Lagomorpha

Family Leporidae
Domestic Rabbit-Oryctolagus cuniculus (c)

Order Perissodactyla

Family Equidae
Domestic Horse-Equus equus przewalski caballus (c)
Donkey-Equus asinus (c)
Mule- (c)

Family Rhinocerotidae
Great Indian Rhinoceros-Rhinoceros unicornis (c)(a)

Order Primata

Family Cercopithcidae
Barbary Macaque-Macaca sylvanus (c)

Family Lemuridae
Ring-tailed Lemura-Lemur catta (c)

Order Proboscidea

Family Elephantidae
Indian (Asian) Elephant-Elephas maximus indicus (c)(a)

Order Rodentia

Family Sciuridae
Gray Squirrel-Sciurus carolinensis
Fox Squirrel-Sciurus niger
Eastern Chipmunk-Tamias striatus


Order Crocodylia

Family Alligatoridae
American Alligator-Alligator mississippiensis (c)

Order Squamata

Family Varanidae
Crocodile Monitor-Varanus salvadorii (c)(a)

Humans (see CDC West Nile Virus homepage:

For more information on the West Nile virus you can access: the USGS Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information web site, or contact: Emi Saito, USGS, National Wildlife Health Center at 608-270-2456, Erik K Hofmeister, USGS, National Wildlife Health Center at 608-270-2476 or Dr. Stephen Guptill USGS, Geographic Sciences Branch at 703-648-4520.

For more information on bird species identification, distribution, and life history, see Patuxent bird identification infocenter


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