National Wildlife Health Center

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USGS Publications on White-Nose Syndrome


  1. Blehert, D.S., 2009, Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats, Fact Sheet (ed.): USGS Numbered Series, U.S. Geological Survey, no. 2009-3058, 2 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3058/
  2. Blehert, D.S., Hicks, A.C., Behr, M., Meteyer, C.U., Berlowski-Zier, B.M., Buckles, E.L., Coleman, J.T.H., Darling, S.R., Gargas, A., Niver, R., Okoniewski, J.C., Rudd, R.J., and Stone, W.B., 2009, Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?: Science, v. 323, no. 5911, p. 227, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1163874
  3. Blehert, D.S., Lorch, J.M., Ballmann, A.E., Cryan, P.M., and Meteyer, C.U., 2011, Bat white-nose syndrome in North America: Microbe Magazine, v. 6, no. 6, p. 267-273, http://www.microbemagazine.org/images/stories/images/june_2011/znw00611000267.pdf
  4. Blehert, D.S., 2012, Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome: PLoS Pathogens, v. 8, no. 7, e1002779, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002779
  5. Boyles, J.G., Cryan, P.M., McCracken, G.F., and Kunz, T.H., 2011, Economic importance of bats in agriculture: Science, v. 332, no. 6025, p. 41-42, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1201366
  6. Buckles, E.L., and Ballmann, A.E., 2012, White-nose syndrome in cave bats of North America, Elsevier Saunders, 432-440 p, http://store.elsevier.com/Fowlers-Zoo-and-Wild-Animal-Medicine-Current-Therapy-Volume-7/R_-Eric-Miller/isbn-9781437719864/
  7. Castle, K., and Cryan, P.M., 2010, White-nose syndrome in bats: a primer for resource managers: Park Science, v. 27, no. 1, p. 20-25, http://www.nature.nps.gov/parkscience/index.cfm?Page=1
  8. Cryan, P.M., Meteyer, C.U., Blehert, D.S., Lorch, J.M., Reeder, D.M., Turner, G.G., Webb, J., Behr, M., Verant, M., Russell, R.E., Castle, K.T., 2013, Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, v. 49, no. 2, p. 398-402,http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2012-04-121
  9. Cryan, P.M., Meteyer, C.U., Boyles, J.G., Blehert, D.S., 2013, White-nose syndrome in bats: illuminating the darkness: BMC Biology, v. 11, 4 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-11-47
  10. Cryan, P., Meteyer, C., Boyles, J., and Blehert, D., 2010, Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology: BMC Biology, v. 8, no. 1, p. 135, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-8-135
  11. Department of Agriculture, Department of Defense, Department of the Interior, and Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, 2011, A national plan for assisting states, federal agencies, and tribes in managing white-nose syndrome in bats: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 17 p., http://whitenosesyndrome.org/sites/default/files/white-nose_syndrome_national_plan_may_2011.pdf
  12. Erickson, R.A., Thogmartin, W.E., Szymanski, J.A., 2014, BatTool: an R package with GUI for assessing the effect of White-nose syndrome and other take events on Myotis spp. of bats: Source Code for Biology and Medicine, v. 9, 10 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1751-0473-9-9
  13. Flory, A.R., Kumar, S., Stohlgren, T.J., and Cryan, P.M., 2012, Environmental conditions associated with bat white-nose syndrome mortality in the north-eastern United States: Journal of Applied Ecology, v. 49, no. 3, p. 680-689, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02129.x
  14. Foley, J., Clifford, D., Castle, K., Cryan, P., and Ostfeld, R.S., 2011, Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats: Conservation Biology, v. 25, no. 2, p. 223-231, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01638.x
  15. Gargas, A., Trest, M.T., Christensen, M., Volk, T.J., and Blehert, D.S., 2009, Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome: Mycotaxon, v. 108, p. 147-154.
  16. Hagar, J.C., Manning, T., Barnett, J., 2013, Survey of bats on Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Washington, December 2011-April 2012, Open-File Report (ed.): USGS Numbered Series, U.S. Geological Survey, no. 2013-1120, 30 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1120/
  17. Iwanowicz, D.D., Iwanowicz, L.R., Hitt, N.P., King, T.L., Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals: Open-File Report (ed.): USGS Numbered Series, U.S. Geological Survey, no. 2013-1099, 11 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1099/
  18. Lindner, D.L., Gargas, A., Lorch, J.M., Banik, M.T., Glaeser, J., Kunz, T.H., and Blehert, D.S., 2011, DNA-based detection of the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans in soils from bat hibernacula: Mycologia, v. 103, no. 2, p. 241-246, http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/10-262
  19. Lorch, J.M., Muller, L.K., Russell, R.E., O’Connor, M., Lindner, D.L., and Blehert, D. S., In Press, Distribution and environmental persistence of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, in bat hibernacula of the eastern United States: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.2939-12
  20. Lorch, J.M., Gargas, A., Meteyer, C.U., Berlowski-Zier, B.M., Green, D.E., Shearn-Bochsler, V., Thomas, N.J., and Blehert, D.S., 2010, Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, v. 22, no. 2, p. 224-230, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063871002200208
  21. Lorch, J.M., Meteyer, C.U., Behr, M.J., Boyles, J.G., Cryan, P.M., Hicks, A.C., Ballmann, A.E., Coleman, J.T.H., Redell, D.N., Reeder, D.M., and Blehert, D.S., 2011, Experimental infection of bats with Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome: Nature, v. 480, no. 7377, p. 376-378, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10590
  22. Lorch, J.M., Lindner, D.L., Gargas, A., Muller, L.K., Minnis, A.M., and Blehert, D. S., In Press, A culture-based survey of fungi in soil from bat hibernacula in the eastern United States and its implications for detection of Geomyces destructans, the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome: Mycologia, http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-207
  23. Meteyer, C.U., 2011, White nose syndrome, in Napier, J.N., and Gamble, K., eds., Infectious Disease Manual 2011: Yulee, FL, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, http://www.aazv.org/associations/6442/files/idm_white_nose_syndrome.pdf
  24. Meteyer, C.U., Blehert, D.S., and Cryan, P.M., In Press, Confirmation of white-nose syndrome in bats of Europe and implications of this discovery toward understanding the disease in bats of North America: Bat Research News.
  25. Meteyer, C.U., Buckles, E.L., Blehert, D.S., Hicks, A.C., Green, D.E., Shearn-Bochsler, V., Thomas, N.J., Gargas, A., and Behr, M.J., 2009, Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, v. 21, no. 4, p. 411-414, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870902100401
  26. Meteyer, C.U., Valent, M., Kashmer, J., Buckles, E.L., Lorch, J.M., Blehert, D.S., Lollar, A., Berndt, D., Wheeler, E., White, C.L., and Ballmann, A.E., 2011, Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, v. 47, no. 3, p. 618-626, http://www.jwildlifedis.org/content/47/3/618.short
  27. Meteyer, C.U., and Wibbelt, G. 2012. Geomyces destructans-White-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, in Gavier-Widen, D., Duff, J.P., and Meredith, A., eds., Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe: Hoboken, NJ, Wiley-Blackwell.
  28. Meteyer, C.U., Barber, D., and Mandl, J.N., 2012, Pathology in euthermic bats with white nose syndrome suggests a natural manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: Virulence, v. 3, no. 7, p. 1-7, http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/virulence/article/22330/
  29. Muller, L.K., Lorch, J.M., Lindner, D.L., O’Connor, M., Gargas, A., Blehert, D.S., 2013, Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans: Mycologia, v. 105, no. 2, p. 253-259, http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-242
  30. Muller, L.K., Lorch, J.M., Lindner, D.L., OÔÇÖConnor, M., Gargas, A., and Blehert, D.S., 2012, Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans: Mycologia, http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-242
  31. Pikula, J., Bandouchova, H., Novotn+˘, L., Meteyer, C.U., Zukal, J., Irwin, N.R., Zima, J., and Mart+ˇnkov+í, N., 2012, Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, v. 48, no. 1, p. 207-211, http://www.jwildlifedis.org/content/48/1/207.abstract
  32. Reeder, D.M., Frank, C.L., Turner, G.G., Meteyer, C.U., Kurta, A., Britzke, E.R., Vodzak, M.E., Darling, S.R., Stihler, C.W., Hicks, A.C., Jacob, R., Grieneisen, L.E., Brownlee, S.A., Muller, L.K., and Blehert, D.S., 2012, Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome: PLoS ONE, v. 7 no. 6, e38920, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038920
  33. Rogall, G.M., and Verant, M., 2012, Fact Sheet (ed.): USGS Numbered Series, U.S. Geological Survey, no. 2012-3076, 2 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3076/
  34. Szymanski, J.A., Runge, M.C., Parkin, M.J., and Armstrong, M., 2009, White-nose syndrome management: report on structured decision making initiative: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 51 p., http://www.fws.gov/northeast/pdf/WNS_SDM_Report_Final_14Oct09.pdf
  35. Thogmartin, W.E., Sanders-Reed, C.A., Szymanski, J.A., McKann, P.C., Pruitt, L., King, R.A., Runge, M.C., Russell, R.E., 2013, White-nose syndrome is likely to extirpate the endangered Indiana bat over large parts of its range: Biological Conservation, v. 160, p. 162-172, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.01.010
  36. Thogmartin, W.E., King, R.A., Szymanski, J.A., Pruitt, L., 2012, Space-time models for a panzootic in bats, with a focus on the endangered Indiana bat: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, v. 48, no. 4, p. 876-887, http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2011-06-176
  37. Thogmartin, W.E., King, R.A., McKann, P.C., Szymanski, J.A., and Pruitt, L., 2012, Population-level impact of white-nose syndrome on the endangered Indiana bat: Journal of Mammalogy, v. 93 no. 4, p. 1086-1098, http://dx.doi.org/10.1644/11-MAMM-A-355.1
  38. Turner, G.G., Meteyer, C.U., Barton, H., Gumbs, J.F., Reeder, D.M., Overton, B., Bandouchova, H., Bartonicka, T., Martínková, N., Pikula, J., Zukal, J., Blehert, D.S., 2014, Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome: Journal of Wildlife Diseasees, v. 50, no. 3, p. 566-573, http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2014-03-058
  39. Valdez, E.W., 2012, Surveillance for white-nose syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011: Open-File Report (ed.): USGS Numbered Series, U.S. Geological Survey, no. 2012-1097, 37 p., http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1097/
  40. Verant, M.L., Meteyer, C.U., Speakman, J.R., Cryan, P.M., Lorch, J.M, Blehert, D.S., 2014, White-nose syndrome initiates a cascade of physiologic disturbances in the hibernating bat host: BMC Physiology, v. 14, no. 10, 10 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12899-014-0010-4
  41. Verant, M.L., Boyles, J.G., Waldrep, W., Jr., Wibbelt, G., and Blehert, D.S., 2012, Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome: PLoS ONE, v. 7, no. 9, e46280, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046280
  42. Warnecke, L., Turner, J.M., Bollinger, T.K., Misra, V., Cryan, P.M., Blehert, D.S., Wibbelt, G., Willis, C.K.R., 2013, Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality: Biology Letters, v. 9, no. 4, 5 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0177
  43. Warnecke, L., Turner, J.M., Bollinger, T.K., Lorch, J.M., Misra, V., Cryan, P.M., Wibbelt, G., Blehert, D.S., and Willis, C.K.R., 2012, Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, v. 109, p. 6999-7003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200374109
  44. Wibbelt, G., Kurth, A., Hellmann, D., Weishaar, M., Barlow, A., Veith, M., Pruger, J., Gorfol, T., Grosche, L., Bontadina, F., Zophel, U., Seidl, H.P., Cryan, P.M., and Blehert, D.S., 2010, White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 16, no. 8, p. 1237-1243, http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/8/10-0002_article.htm

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