National Wildlife Health Center

...advancing wildlife and ecosystem health

Scientific contributions by the Honolulu Field Station.


  • Roffe TJ, Work TM (2005) Wildlife health and disease investigations. In: Braun CE (ed) Techniques for wildlife investigations and management. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, pp616-631(PDF)
  • Work T.M. (2015) Mortality investigations. In: Franson J.C., Friend M., Gibbs S.E.J., Wild M.A., editors. Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases. Washington, D.C.: US Geological Survey. (PDF)


  • Work, T.M., R.A. Rameyer. 2005. Characterizing lesions in corals from American Samoa. Coral Reefs 24:384-390. (PDF)
  • Galloway, S.B., T.M. Work, V.S. Bochsler, R.A. Harley, E. Kramarsky-Winters, E.C. Peters, T.L. Reynolds, D.S. Rotstein, L. Sileo, C.M. Woodley. 2007. Coral Disease and health Workshop: Coral Histopathology II. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 56 and CRCP 4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring , MD. 84p. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.S. Aeby. 2006. Systematically describing gross lesions in corals. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 70:155-160. (PDF)
  • Aeby, G.S., T.M. Work, D. Fenner, E. DiDonato. 2008. Coral and crustose coralline algae disease on the reefs of American Samoa. Proc 11th Int. Coral Reef Symp. 198-201. (PDF)
  • Raymundo, L., T.M. Work, A. Bruckner, B. Willis. 2008. A decision tree for describing coral lesions in the field. In. LJ Raymundo, CS Couch, and CD Harvell, editors. Coral Disease Handbook: Guidelines for Assessment, Monitoring and Management. The Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management Program , St. Lucia , Australia . Page 17-32. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.S. Aeby, S.L. Coles. 2008. Distribution and morphology of Acropora growth anomalies in the Indo-Pacific. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 78:255-264. (PDF)
  • Work, T., C. Woodley, L. Raymundo. 2008. Confirming field assessments and measuring disease impacts. In. LJ Raymundo, CS Couch, and CD Harvell, editors. Coral Disease Handbook: Guidelines for Assessment, Monitoring and Management. The Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for management Program , St. Lucia , Australia . Pp. 33-46. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.S. Aeby, J.E. Maragos. 2008. Phase shift from a coral to a corallimorph-dominated reef associated with a shipwreck on Palmyra Atoll. PLOS-One. 3: e2989. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., L.L. Richardson, T.L. Reynolds, B.L. Willis. 2008. Biomedical and veterinary science can increase our understanding of coral disease. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 362: 63-70. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.S. Aeby, F. Stanton, D. Fenner. 2008. Overgrowth of fungi (endolithic hypermycosis) associated with multifocal to diffuse distinct amorphous dark discoloration of corals in the Indo-Pacific. Coral Reefs. 27: 663. (PDF)
  • Bourne, D.G., M. Garren, T.M. Work , E. Rosenberg , G.W. Smith, C. Drew Harvell. 2009. Microbial disease and the coral holobiont. Trends in Microbiology. 17: 554-562. (PDF)
  • Aeby, G.S., M. Ross, G.J. Williams, T.D. Lewis, T.M. Work. 2010. Disease dynamics of Montipora white syndrome within Kaneohe Bay , Oahu , Hawaii : distribution, seasonality, virulence, and transmissibility. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 91:1-8. (PDF)
  • Williams, G.J., T.M. Work, G.S. Aeby, I.S. Knapp, S.K. Davy. 2011. Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 106: 165-173. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.S. Aeby. 2010. Wound repair in Montipora capitata . Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 105:116-119. (PDF)
  • Aeby, G.S., D.G. Bourne, B. Wilson, T.M. Work. 2011. Coral diversity and the Severity of Disease Outbreaks: A Cross-Regional Comparison of Acropora White Syndrome in a Species-Rich Region (American Samoa) with a Species-Poor Region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands). Journal of Marine Biology Vol. 2011, Article ID 490198, 8 pages. (PDF)
  • Aeby, G.S., G.J. Williams, E.C. Franklin, J. Kenyon, E.F. Cox, S. Coles, T.M. Work. 2011. Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment. PLOS ONE Vol.6, Issue 5. (PDF)
  • Aeby, G.S., G.J. Williams, E.C. Franklin, J. Haapkyla, C. Drew Harvell, S. Neale, C.A. Page, L. Raymundo, B. Vargas-Angel, B.L. Willis, T.M. Work, S.K. Davy. 2011. Growth Anomalies on the Coral Genera Acropora and Porites are Strongly Associated with Host Density and Human Population Size across the Indo-Pacific. PLOS ONE Vol.6, Issue 2. (PDF)
  • Williams, G.J., I.S. Knapp, T.M. Work, E.J. Conklin. 2011. Outbreak of Acropora white syndrome following a mild bleaching event at Palmyra Atoll, Northern Line Islands, Central Pacific. Coral Reefs 30:621. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.S. Aeby. 2011. Pathology of tissue loss (white syndrome) in Acropora sp. Corals from the Central Pacific. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 107: 127-131. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., Z.H. Forsman, Z. Szabo, T.D. Lewis, G.S. Aeby, R.J. Toonen. 2011. Inter-Specific Coral Chimerism: Genetically Distinct Multicellular Structures Associated with Tissue Loss in Montipora capitata. PLOS ONE, Vol.6, Issue 7. (PDF)
  • Sudek, M., T.M. Work, G.S. Aeby, S.K. Davy. 2012. Histological observations in the Hawaiian reef coral, Porites compressa, affected by Porites bleaching with tissue loss. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 111: 121-125. (PDF)
  • Wilson, B., et al., Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa. FEMS Microbial Ecology, 2012. 80: p. 509-520.(PDF)
  • Work, T.M., R. Russell, G.S. Aeby. 2012. Tissue loss (white syndrome) in the coral Montipora capitata is a dynamic disease with multiple host responses and potential causes. Proc. R. Soc. B 279: 4334-4341. (PDF)
  • T W, Meteyer C (2014) To understand coral disease, look at coral cells. Ecohealth (PDF)
  • Williams, G.J., et al., Ocean warming and acidification have complex interactive effects on the dynamics of a marine fungal disease. Proceedings of Royal Society B, 2014. 281.(PDF)
  • Work, T.M. and Y. Farah, Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 2014. 117: p. 42–50. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M. and G. Aeby, Microbial aggregates within tissues infect a diversity of corals throughout the Indo-Pacific. Marine Ecology 2014 Vol. 500: 1-9. (PDF)
  • Work T.M., Aeby G.S., Lasne G, Tribollet A. 2014. Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 120:50-8. (PDF)
  • Aeby G.S., Work T.M., Hughen K.A. 2014. The first cyanobacterial infection of crustose coralline algae discovered on the reefs of Pohnpei, Micronesia. Bulletin of Marine Science 2014, 90:873-4. (PDF)
  • Aeby G, Tribollet A, Lasne G, Work T. 2014. Assessing threats from coral and crustose coralline algae disease on the reefs of New Caledonia. Marine and Freshwater Research.(PDF)
  • Rodríguez-Villalobos J.C., Rocha-Olivares A., Work T.M., Calderon-Aguilera LE, Cáceres-Martínez J.A., 2014 Gross and microscopic pathology of lesions in Pocillopora spp. from the subtropical eastern Pacific.(PDF)
  • Work T.M., Aeby G.S., Hughen K. 2015. Gross and microscopic pathology of corals from Micronesia. Veterinary Pathology. (PDF)
  • Aeby G.S., Work T.M., Runyon C.M., Shore-Maggio A., Ushijima B., Videau P., et al. 2015. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment. PLoS One. 10:e0120853.(PDF)
  • Rodríguez-Villalobos JC, Work TM, Calderon-Aguilera LE, Reyes-Bonilla H, Hernández L 2015. Explained and unexplained tissue loss in corals from the Tropical Eastern Pacific. Dis Aquat Org 116:121-131. (LINK)
  • Palic, D., J. V. Warg and T. M. Work (2015). Biocontainment practices for corals. Diseases of Coral. C. M. Woodley, C. A. Downs, A. W. Bruckner, J. W. Porter and S. B. Galloway. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley: 442-458.
  • Work, T. M., L. T. Kaczmarsky and E. C. Peters (2015). Skeletal growth anomalies in corals. Diseases of Coral. C. M. Woodley, C. A. Downs, A. W. Bruckner, J. W. Porter and S. B. Galloway. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley: 291-299.
  • Work, T. M. and E. Weil (2015). Dark Spots Disease. Diseases of Coral. C. M. Woodley, C. A. Downs, A. W. Bruckner, J. W. Porter and S. B. Galloway. New York, Hoboken, NJ: 354-360.
  • Aeby, G. S., S. Callahan, E. F. Cox, C. Runyon, A. Smith, F. G. Stanton, B. Ushijima, and T. M. Work. 2016. Emerging coral diseases in Kane'ohe Bay, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA): two major disease outbreaks of acute Montipora white syndrome. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 119: 189-198.
  • Raymundo, L. J., T. M. Work, R. L. Miller, and P. L. Lozada-Misa. 2016. Effects of Coralliophila violacea on tissue loss in the scleractinian corals Porites spp. depend on host response. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 119: 75–83.
  • Rodriguez-Villalobos, J. C., T. M. Work, and L. E. Calderon-Aguilera. 2016. Wound repair in Pocillopora. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 139: 1-5.


  • Work, T.M., R.A. Rameyer, G. Takata, and M.L. Kent. 2003. Protozoal and epitheliocystis-like infection in the introduced bluestripe snapper Lutjanus kasmira in Hawaii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 57: 59-66. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G. Takata, C. Whipps and M.L. Kent. 2008 . Henneguya akule n. sp. in the big eyed scad ( Selar crumenophthalmus ) from Hawaii. Journal of Parasitology. 94: 524-529. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., M. Vignon, G.S. Aeby. 2010. Microparasite ecology and health status of common bluestriped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from the Pacific Islands. Aquatic Biology. 9: 185-192. (PDF)
  • Corsaro, D., T.M. Work. 2012. Candidatus Renichlamydia lutjani, a Gram-negative bacterium in internal organs of blue-striped snapper Lutjanus kasmira from Hawaii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms Vol.98: 249-254. (PDF)
  • Santoro, M., et al., Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2013. 105: p. 139–148.(PDF)
  • Work, T.M. and G.S. Aeby, Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett). Journal of Fish Diseases, 2013.(PDF)
  • Work, T. M., P. D. Moeller, K. R. Beauchesne, J. Dagenais, R. Breeden, R. Rameyer, W. J. Walsh, M. Abecassis, D. R. Kobayashi, C. Conway, and J. Winton. 2017. Pufferfish mortality associated with novel polar marine toxins in Hawaii. Dis Aquat Organ 123: 87-99. (LINK)


  • Harris, H. S., S. R. Benson, M. C. James, K. J. Martin, B. A. Stacy, P.-Y. Daoust, P. M. Rist, T. M. Work, G. H. Balazs, and J. A. Seminoff. 2016. Validation of ultrasound as a noninvasive tool to measure subcutaneous fat depth in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 47: 275–279.
  • Casey, R.N., S.L. Quackenbush, T.M. Work, G.H. Balazs, P.R. Bowser and J.W. Casey. 1997. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 31: 1-7. (PDF)
  • Graczyk, T.K., G.H. Balazs, T.M. Work, A.A. Aguirre, D.M. Ellis, S.K.K. Murakawa, R.M. Morris. 1997. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas , as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian islands. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63:2925-2927. (PDF)
  • Moore, M.K., T.M. Work , G.H. Balazs, and D.E. Docherty. 1997. Preparation, cryopreservation, and growth of cells prepared from the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ). Methods in Cell Science. 19: 161-168. (PDF)
  • Quackenbush, S.L., T.M. Work, G.H. Balazs, R.N. Casey, J. Rovnak, A. Chaves, L. duToit, J.D. Baines, C.R. Parrish, P.R. Bowser, and J.W. Casey. 1998. Three closely related herpesviruses are associated with fibropapillomatosis in marine turtles. Virology. 246: 392-399. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., R.E. Raskin, G.H. Balazs, S. Whittaker. 1998. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 59: 1252-1257. (PDF)
  • Landsberg, J.H., G.H. Balazs, K.A. Steidinger, D.G. Baden, T.M. Work, and D.J. Russel. 1999. The potential role of natural tumor promoters in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 11:199-210. (PDF)
  • Lu, Y., V.R. Nerurkar, A.A. Aguirre, T.M. Work, G.H. Balazs, R. Yanaghihara. 1999. Establishment and characterization of 13 cell lines from a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas. In Vitro Cellular Development and Biology-Animal. 35:389-393. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs. 1999. Relating tumor score to hematology in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis in Hawaii. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 35:804-807. (PDF)
  • Lu, Y., A.A. Aguirre, T.M. Work , G.H. Balazs, V.R. Nerurkar, R. Yanagihara. 2000. Identification of a small, naked virus in tumor-like aggregates in cell lines derived from a green turtle, Chelonia mydas , with fibropapillomas. Journal of Virological Methods. 86:25-33. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs, R.A. Rameyer, S.P. Chang, J. Berestecky. 2000. Assessing humoral and cell mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 74:179-194. (PDF)
  • Quackenbush, S.L., R.N. Casey, R.J. Murcek, T.A. Paul, T.M. Work, C.J. Limpus, A. Chaves, L. duToh, J. Vasconcelos Perez, A. Alonjo Aguirre, T.R. Spraker, J.A. Horrocks, L.A. Vermeer, G.H. Balazs, J.W. Casey. 2001. Quantitative analysis of herpesvirus sequences from normal tissue and fibropapillomas of marine turtles with real-time PCR. Virology 287-105-111.(PDF)
  • Work, T.M., R.A. Rameyer, G.H. Balazs, C. Cray, S.P. Chang. 2001. Immune status of free-ranging green turtles from Hawaii with Fibropapillomatosis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 37:574-581. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs. 2002. Necropsy findings in sea turtles taken bycatch in the North Pacific long line fishery. Fishery Bulletin 100: 876-880. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs, M. Wolcott, R. Morris. 2003. Bacteraemia in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas, with fibropapillomatosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 53:41-46. (PDF)
  • Greenblatt, R.J., T.M. Work, G.H. Balazs, C.A. Sutton, R.N. Casey, J.W. Casey. 2004. The Ozobranchus leech is a candidate mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Virology 321:101-110. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs, R.A. Rameyer, R.M. Morris. 2004. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 62:163-176. (PDF)
  • Greenblatt, R. J., S. L. Quackenbush, R. N. Casey, R. Rovnak, G. H. Balazs, T. M. Work, J. W. Casey, and C. A. Sutton. 2005. Genomic variation of the fibropapilloma-associated marine turtle herpesvirus across seven geographic areas and three host species. Journal of Virology 79:1125-1132. (PDF)
  • Greenblatt, R.J., T.M. Work, P. Dutton, C.A. Sutton, T.R. Spraker, R.N. Casey, C.E. Diez, D. Parker, J. St. Ledger, G.H. Balazs, J.W. Casey. 2005. Geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36:527-530. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M. 2005. Cancer in sea turtles. Hawaii Medical Journal 64:23-24. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs, J.L. Schumacher, A. Marie. 2005. Epizootiology of spirorchid infection in green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) in Hawaii. Journal of Parasitology. 91:871-876. (PDF)
  • Chaloupka, M., T.M. Work, G.H. Balazs, S.K.K. Murakawa, R. Morris. 2008. Cause-specific temporal and spatial trends in green sea turtle strandings in the Hawaiian archipelago (1982-2003). Marine Biology 154:887-898. (PDF)
  • Chaloupka, M., G.H. Balazs, T.M. Work. 2009. Rise and fall over 26 years of a marine epizootic in Hawaiian green sea turtles. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45: 1138-1142. (PDF)
  • Flint, M., J.C. Patterson-Kane, C.J. Limpus, T.M. Work, D. Blair, P.C. Mills. 2009. Postmortem diagnostic investigation of disease in free-ranging marine turtle populations: a review of common pathological findings and protocols. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigations. 21: 733-759. (PDF)
  • Muñoz, F.A., S. Estrada-Parra, A. Romero-Rojas, T.M. Work , E. Gonzalez-Ballesteros, I. Estrada-Garcia. 2009. Identification of CD3+ lymphocytes in the green turtle Chelonia mydas. Veterinary Immunology and Immupathology. 131: 211-217. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., J. Dagenais, G.H. Balazs, J.S. Schumacher, T.D. Lewis, J.C. Leong, R.N. Casey, J.W. Casey. 2009. In vitro biology of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus and host cells in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Journal of General Virology. 90: 1943-1950. (PDF)
  • Hamann, M., M.H. Godfrey, J.A. Seminoff, K. Arthur, P.C.R. Barata, K.A. Bjorndal, A.B. Bolten, A.C. Broderick, L.M. Campbell, C. Carreras, P. Casale, M. Chaloupka, S.K.F. Chan, M.S. Coyne, L.B. Crowder, C.E. Diez, P.H. Dutton, S.P. Epperly, N.N. FitzSimmons, A. Formia, M. Girondot, G.C. Hays, I.J. Cheng, Y. Kaska, R. Lewison, J.A. Mortimer, W.J. Nichols, R.D. Reina, K. Shanker, J.R. Spotila, J. Tomás, B.P. Wallace, T.M. Work , J. Zbinden, B.J. Godley. 2010. Global research priorities for sea turtles: informing management and conservation in the 21st century. Endangered Species Research. 11:245-269. (PDF)
  • Santos, Robson Guimarães dos, Agnaldo Silva Martins, Evelise Torezani, Cecília Baptistotte, Julyana da Nóbrega Farias, Paulo Antunes Horta, Thierry M. Work , George H. Balazs. 2010. Relationship between fibropapillomatosis and environmental quality: a case study with Chelonia mydas off Brazil. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 89: 87-95. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., G.H. Balazs. 2010. Pathology and distribution of sea turtles landed as bycatch in the Hawaii-Based North Pacific pelagic longline fishery. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46: 422-432. (PDF)
  • Harris, H.S., S.R. Benson, K.V. Gilardi, R.H. Poppenga, T.M. Work, P.H. Dutton, J.A.K. Mazet. 2011. Comparative health assessment of western pacific leatherback turtles (Demochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol.47, No.2. (PDF)
  • Santos, R.G., A.S. Martins, J. da NobregaFarias, P.A. Horta, H.T. Pinheiro, E. Torezani, C. Baptistotte, J.A. Seminott, G.H. Balazs, T.M. Work. 2011. Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 1297-1302.(PDF)
  • Ackermann, M., et al., The genome of chelonid Herpesvirus 5 harbors atypical genes. PLOS One, 2012. 7: p. e46623.(PDF)
  • Muñoz, F.A., et al., Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2013. 44: p. 837-844.(PDF)
  • Work, T.M. and G.H. Balazs, A simple humane method to euthanize sea turtles. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 2013. 136: p. 5-6.(PDF)
  • Work, T.M. and G.H. Balazs, Tumors in sea turtles. The insidious menace of fibropapillomatosis. The Wildlife Professional, 2013. Fall: p. 44-47.(PDF)
  • Davenport, J., et al., Unique characteristics of the trachea of the juvenile leatherback turtle facilitate feeding, diving and endothermy. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2014. 450: p. 40-46.(PDF)
  • Work T.M., Dagenais J, Balazs G.H., Schettle N, Ackermann M. 2014. Dynamics of virus shedding and in-situ confirmation of chelonid herpesvirus 5 in Hawaiian green turtles with fibropapillomatosis. Veterinary Pathology.(PDF)
  • Keller J.M., Balazs G.H., Nilsen F, Rice M, Work T.M., Jensen B.A. 2014. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis. Environmental Science and Technology. 2014, 48:7807-16. (PDF)
  • de Deus Santos M, Martins A.S., Baptistotte C, Work T.M. 2015. Health condition of juvenile Chelonia mydas related to fibropapillomatosis in southeast Brazil. Disease of Aquatic Organisms. 115:193?201.(PDF)
  • Work T.M., Balazs G.H., Summers T.M., Hapdei J.R., Tagarino A.R. 2015. Causes of mortality in green turtles from Hawaii and the insular Pacific exclusive of fibropapillomatosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 115:103?10.(PDF)
  • Work TM, Dagenais J, Breeden R, Schneemann A, Sung J, Hew B, Balazs GH, Berestecky JM 2015. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have novel asymmetrical antibodies. J Immunol (PDF)
  • Work TM, Ackermann M, Casey J, Chaloupka M, Herbst L, Lynch J, Stacy B 2015. The story of invasive algae, arginine, and turtle tumors does not make sense. PeerJ PrePrints 2:e539v531 (PDF)
  • Davenport J, Jones TT, Work TM, Balazs GH 2015. Topsy-turvy: turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down. Biology Letters 11:20150592 (PDF)


  • Freifeld, H. B., S. Plentovich, C. Farmer, C. R. Kohley, P. Luscomb, T. M. Work, D. Tsukayama, G. E. Wallace, M. A. Macdonald, and S. Conant. 2016. Long-distance translocations to create a second millerbird population and reduce extinction risk. Biological Conservation 199: 146–156.
  • Work, T. M., S. K. Verma, C. Su, J. Medeiros, T. Kaiakapu, O. C. Kwok, and J. P. Dubey. 2016. Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence and two new genotypes of the parasite in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene: Branta Sandvicensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 52: 253-257.
  • Work, T.M. 1996. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging pelagic seabirds in Hawaii. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 32:643-657. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., J. Hale. 1996. Causes of owl mortality in Hawaii, 1992-1994. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 32: 266-273. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., R.A. Rameyer. 1996. Haemoproteus iwa n. sp. in great frigatebirds ( Fregata minor [Gmelin]) from Hawaii: parasite morphology and prevalence. Journal of Parasitology. 82:489-491. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., M.R. Smith. 1996. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.31:115-119. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., R.A. Rameyer. 1997. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies ( Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Journal of Parasitology. 83:734-738. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., M.R. Smith, R. Duncan. 1998. Necrotizing enteritis as a cause of mortality in Laysan albatross chicks. Avian Diseases. 42:1-5. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M. 1999. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies, Sula leucogaster, in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 30: 81-84. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., R.A. Rameyer. 1999. Mass stranding of wedge-tailed shearwater chicks in Hawaii. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 35:487-495. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., D. Ball, M. Wolcott. 1999. Erysipelas in a free-ranging Hawaiian crow (Corvus hawaiiensis). Avian Diseases. 43:338-341. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., N.G. Massey, L. Johnson, S. Dougill, P. Banko. 1999. Survival and physiologic response of common amakihi and Japanese white eyes during simulated translocation. Condor 101:21-27. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., J.G. Massey, B.A. Rideout, C.H. Gardiner, D.B. Ledig, O.C.H. Kwok, J.P. Dubey. 2000. Fatal toxoplasmosis in free-ranging endangered `Alala from Hawaii. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 36: 205-212. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., J.G. Massey, D.S. Lindsay, J.P. Dubey. 2002. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds. Journal of Parasitology. 88:1040-1042. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., C.U. Meteyer, R.A. Cole. 2004. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) due to emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii, 1993. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 40:110-114. (PDF)
  • Reynolds, M.H., T.M. Work. 2005. Mortality in the endangered Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis : conservation implications. Wildfowl 55:31-48. (PDF)
  • Yabsley, M.J., T.M. Work, R.A. Rameyer 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Babesia poelea from brown boobies ( Sula leucogaster ) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Journal of Parasitology. 92:423-425. (PDF)
  • Reynolds, M.H., T.M. Work. 2007. Translocation and disease monitoring of wild laysan ducks. Endangered Species Bulletin 2007 Highlights. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M. 2009. The struggle to save the Laysan Duck. Managing diseases that threaten a rare bird in the Hawaiian Islands. The Wildlife Professional pp. 61-64. (PDF)
  • Work, T.M., J.L. Klavitter, M.H. Reynolds, D. Blehert. 2010. Avian botulism: A case study in translocated endangered Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46:499-506. (PDF)
  • Russel, T., L. Young, T.M. Work. 2011. Infanticide of wedge-tailed shearwater Puffinus pacificus chick at Marine Corps Base Hawaii. Marine Ornithology 39: 135-136. (PDF)
  • Merino, S., et al., Infection by Haemoproteus parasites in four species of frigatebirds and the description of a new species of Haemoproteus (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) Journal of Parasitology, 2012. 98: p. 388–397.(PDF)
  • Work T.M., Dagenais J, Rameyer R, Breeden R. 2015. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene: Branta sandvicensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51:688-95. (PDF)

Products From The Honolulu Field Station

A picture of coral
Coral disease cards available as PDFs


Below are links to sea turtle or seabird necropsy manuals (various languages) or scientific papers (English) on wildlife diseases, corals, fish, sea turtles, birds.

Sea Turtle Necropsy Manual

English language edition (PDF)
Spanish language edition (PDF)
Italian language edition (PDF)
Japanese language edition (PDF)
Chinese (simplified) edition (PDF)
Chinese (traditional) edition (PDF)
French language edition (PDF)
Portuguese language edition (PDF)
Persian language edition (PDF)

Seabird Necropsy Manual

English language edition (PDF)
Spanish language edition (PDF)
French language edition (PDF)
Portuguese language edition (PDF)

Collecting corals for histopathology. A practical guide

English language edition (PDF)
Spanish language edition (PDF)

Dossier of documents for China/USA Sea Turtle Workshop – Hawaii 2014

Sea Star Necropsy Protocol


Histology Manual for Tripneustes gratilla (Collector Urchin)


HFS Newsletters

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: Contact Form
Page Last Modified: Jun 13, 2017