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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
April 2000 to June 2000

Reported
State
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
By
CA Humbolt Bay NWR 03/30/00-03/30/00 Red-legged Frog 6 Open NW
CA Seeley 05/23/00-05/23/00 Brown Pelican 9 Toxicosis: carbamate NW
CA Shasta Co., Whiskeytown NRA 6/14/00-ongoing Bull Frog 100's(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
CA Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR 04/05/00-ongoing American White Pelican, California Gull, Double-crested Cormorant 8 Botulism type E NW
CO Kettle Tarn, Rocky Mountain NP 05/01/00-ongoing Boreal Toad 2 Fungal Infection: chytrid NW
CO Monte Vista NWR 05/04/00-06/13/00 Unidentified Egret, Unidentified Phalarope, European Starling 100(e) Botulism suspect AM
FL Collier Co. 02/01/00-06/16/00 Logger Head Turtle 79 Open FW
Riddley Sea Turtle GA Glynn Co. 02/22/00-02/25/00 Yellow-rumped Warbler, Unidentified Bird, Solitary Vireo 12 Lead poisoning SC
GA Madison Co. 02/19/00-02/25/00 Chipping Sparrow, American Robin 2 Parasitism: Tick paralysis suspect SC NVSL
IA Winneshiek Co. 03/31/00-03/31/00 Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle 25(e) Open NW
ID Boise 04/01/00-04/01/00 American Wigeon, Black-billed Magpie 5 Toxicosis: diazinon ID NW
MA Hampshire Co. 06/19/00-ongoing Wood Frog, Spotted Salamander 100's(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
ME Acadia NP 06/26/00-ongoing Spring Peeper, Spotted Salamander 100's(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
MI Marquette 01/09/00-06/15/00 Common Redpoll, Purple Finch, Evening Grosbeak, Northern Cardinal 107 Salmonellosis, (S. typhimurium) NW RL
MN Crow Wing Co. 06/15/00-ongoing Green Frog, Mink Frog 100's(e) Infection: Suspect yeast NW
MN Esden Lake 06/20/00-ongoing Mink Frog 100's(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
MN Ramsey Co. 06/01/00-06/04/00 American Crow 4 Aspergillosis NW
MN Winona Co. 05/01/00-05/05/00 Pickerel Frog, Northern Leopard Frog 6 Trauma suspect NW
MT Sheridan Co. 06/28/00-ongoing Mallard, Muskrat, American Coot, Eared Grebe, Brown-headed Cowbird 402 Open NW
NC Macon Co. 02/05/00-05/10/00 Pine Siskin, American Goldfinch, Purple Finch, Evening Grosbeak, Northern Cardinal 1,000(e) Salmonellosis NW SC
NC Graham Co. 03/27/00-ongoing Wood Frog, Spotted Salamanders 1000's(e) Open NW
NC Graham Co. 06/12/00-ongoing Bull Frog, Spotted Salamanders 10(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
ND Kidder Co. 06/21/00-ongoing Unidentified Grebe 1233 Botulism Suspect NW
ND Stutsman County 06/04/00-ongoing Tiger Salamander 1,000(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
NE Omaha 06/27/00-ongoing Canada Goose, Wood Duck, Domestic Goose, Domestic Duck 30(e) Botulism type C NW
NV Churchill Co. 05/15/00-05/16/00 American White Pelican, Western Grebe 50(e) Trauma: gunshot NW
OH Fort Mitchell 06/05/00-06/22/00 Screech Owl, Cooper's hawk, Red-shouldered hawk, Great-horned owl 9 Toxicosis suspect NW
OH Goshen 06/14/00-06/17/00 Canada goose 3 Toxicosis: diazinon suspect NW
OH Highland Co. 03/01/00-03/09/00 Unidentified Owl, Unidentified Weasel, Raccoon, Red-tailed Hawk, Unidentified Rabbit 10(e) Open NW
OR Clackamas Co., Barton 06/12/00-06/12/00 Mallard, Nutria 4(e) Toxicosis: mineral oil suspect OR
PA Lehigh Co. 04/20/00-05/04/00 Muscovy Duck, Pekin Duck, Domestic Swan 12 Duck plague NW
SC Charleston Co. 06/08/00-ongoing Muscovy Duck, Mallard 17(e) Duck plague SC
TN Great Smokey Mtns. 05/10/00-ongoing Wood Frog, Marbled Salamander, Eastern Spotted Newt 100's(e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
TN Blount Co. 05/10/00-05/17/00 Pine Siskin 8(e) Salmonellosis NW
WA Okanogan Co. 05/18/00-ongoing Pine Siskin, Cassin's Finch 100(e) Salmonellosis NW
WI Marinette Co. 04/01/00-04/15/00 Common Redpoll 20(e) Salmonellosis WI
WV Tucker Co., Canaan Valley NWR 04/01/00-04/05/00 American Goldfinch, Fox Sparrow, Pine Siskin 4 Salmonellosis (S. typhimurium) NW

(e) = estimate * = morbidity and mortality

Alamosa/Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, CO (AM);California Dept. of Fish & Game-Wildlife Invest. Lab (CA); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ft. Myers, FL (FW); Nat'l Wildlife Health Center (NW ); Idaho Wildlife health Lab, Caldwell, ID (ID); National Veterinary Services Lab, Ames IA (NVSL); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR (OR); Rose Lake Wildlife Disease Lab, MI (RL); Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SC); Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI).

Written and compiled by Kathryn Converse, Kimberli Miller, Linda Glaser, Terry Creekmore, and Audra Schrader, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC). To report mortality or if you would like specific information on these mortalities, contact one of the following NWHC staff: Western US Kathryn Converse; Eastern US--Kimberli Miller; Hawaiian Islands--Thierry Work. Phone (608) 270-2400, FAX (608) 270-2415 or E-mail kathy_converse@usgs.gov. National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

Amphibian die-offs that occurred this spring in Maine, Minnesota, North Carolina, Massachusetts, and Tennessee have been attributed to iridovirus infection. Affected species included spring peepers, wood, bull, and mink frogs and spotted salamanders. Iridovirus was previously documented as the cause of amphibian mortalities in Arizona (1996), Canada (1997), Utah and North Dakota (1998) and Idaho and Wyoming (1999). In addition, chytrid fungus has been implicated as the likely cause of boreal toad mortality in Colorado's Rocky Mountain National Park. This fungus was responsible for boreal toad die-offs in the park and other regions of the state in 1999.

Salmonellosis, a common cause of songbird mortality in the US, continues to impact birds in several states. Die-offs were reported from Michigan, North Carolina, Tennessee, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin with mortality occurring in a variety of species commonly associated with bird feeders. Widespread songbird die-offs were reported earlier this year in the eastern and Midwestern United States.

Strong winds blew 3 unbolted electrical power transformers from their utility poles spilling approximately 240 gallons of mineral oil-based insulating fluid into a series of small ponds in Barton, Oregon. Eight mallards and at least 2 nutria were impacted by the unusual spill. Four of the affected ducks died while the remainder were cleaned and released. It is unknown if mortality occurred among the nutria inhabiting the ponds.

Tick paralysis was reported from an American Robin and a Chipping Sparrow submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study for evaluation. An engorged Ixodes brunneus tick was found on each bird. Several species of ticks are associated with tick paralysis but I. Brunneus is the primary tick known to cause this condition in birds. Paralysis is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by the tick's salivary glands, and prompt removal of the tick usually results in full recovery of the animal if no associated traumatic injuries have occurred.

For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460 or Paul Slota, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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