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USGS National Wildlife Health Center
Quarterly Wildlife Mortality Report
July 2000 to September 2000

Reported
State
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
By
AK Kenai Peninsula Co., Skilak Lake 07/15/00-07/18/00 Double-crested Cormorant 10 Open NW
CA Glenn Co., Sacramento NWR 08/07/00-08/29/00 White Ibis, Unidentified Egret, Unidentified Pelican, Pied-billed Grebe, Mallard 143 Botulism type C NW
CA Mono Co., Toiyabe NF 08/16/00-09/15/00 Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog 7 Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
CA Santa Cruz, Ellicott Slough NWR 05/20/00-05/20/00 Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander 100* (e) Predation Fungal Infection: Chytrid Emaciation NW
CA Imperial Co., Seeley 05/23/00-05/23/00 Brown Pelican 9 Toxicosis: Organophosphate Trauma: Impact NW
CA Siskiyou Co., Lower Klamath Basin NWR 07/20/00-08/28/00 Northern Pintail, Gadwall, American Coot, Northern Shoveler, Mallard 950 (e) Botulism type C NW
CA Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR 06/26/00-ongoing American White Pelican, Brown Pelican 1,025 Botulism type C NW
CA Trinity Co., South Fork Trinity River 07/18/00-10/03/00 Rough-skinned Newt, Pacific Giant Salamander 4* Parasitism: Trematodiasis NW
CA Sonny Bono, Salton Sea NWR 08/02/00-08/25/00 Cattle Egret 800 (e) Salmonellosis NW
ID Jefferson Co., Camas NWR 07/14/00-09/05/00 Unidentified Duck, Pied-billed Grebe, American Coot, Canada Goose 106 Botulism type C NW
ID Jefferson Co., Market Lake WMA 07/07/00-08/22/00 Franklin's Gull, Unidentified Duck, Green-winged Teal 65 Botulism suspect ID,NW
IL Havana, Chautauqua NWR 09/08/00-10/10/00 Mallard, Northern Shoveler, Green-winged Teal, Unidentified Shorebird, Northern Pintail 933 Botulism type C NW
IL Lake Co., Lake Calumet 07/06/00-07/15/00 Unidentified Gull 100 Open IL
KY Adair Co., Columbia 09/02/00-09/09/00 Magnolia Warbler, American Redstart, Chestnut-sided Warbler, Ovenbird, Tennessee Warbler 139 Trauma: Tower strike SC
ME Albany Twp., Crocker Pond 07/01/00-07/05/00 American Toad, Bull Frog 150 (e) Toxicosis suspect NW
ME Hancock Co., Acadia NP 06/26/00-08/14/00 Green Frog, Spotted Salamander, Spring Peeper 100 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
MI Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron 07/05/00-07/26/00 Mallard 13 (e) Botulism type C MI
MN Dakota Co., Apple Valley 07/03/00-09/06/00 Mallard, Canada Goose 121 Botulism type C NW
MO Franklin Co., Washington 08/09/00-08/09/00 Unidentified Blackbird, Common Grackle 4 Open NW
MS Grenada Co., Grenada Lake 08/15/00-08/16/00 Cattle Egret 200 (e) Open MS
MT Missoula Co., Missoula 07/14/00-07/17/00 Black-billed Magpie 20 (e) Toxicosis: Organophosphorus cmpd. suspect NW
MT Phillips Co., Bowdoin NWR 07/05/00-10/02/00 American Wigeon, Blue-winged Teal, Gadwall, Northern Pintail, Mallard 3,236 (e) Botulism type C NW
MT Sheridan Co., Daphne Gaffney Lakes 07/17/00-09/01/00 Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon, Canada Goose 200 (e) Botulism suspect Least Bittern ML
MT Sheridan Co., Medicine Lake NWR 06/28/00-07/17/00 Muskrat, Canada Goose, Garder Snake, Painted Turtle, Unidentified Waterfowl 700 (e) Open NW
NC New Bern, Union Point Park 07/06/00-07/26/00 Hybrid Mallard, Laughing Gull, Herring Gull 150 (e) Botulism type C NC
NC Onslow Co. 05/19/00-08/23/00 Southern Leopard Frog, Barking Tree Frog 8 (e) Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
NC Onslow Co. 05/23/00-07/26/00 Cottonmouth Snake, Red-bellied Water Snake 4* Parasitism: Nematodiasis NW
ND McIntosh Co., Kulm WMD 07/26/00-08/23/00 Bufflehead, Mallard, Gadwall 189 Botulism type C NW
ND McLean Co., Turtle Lake II WDA 08/03/00-09/15/00 American Coot, Black-crowned Night Heron, Eared Grebe, Northern Shoveler, Unidentified Duck 831 Botulism type C NW
ND Ramsey Co., Lake Alice NWR 07/13/00-09/20/00 Gadwall, American Coot, Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard 1,354 Botulism type C NW
ND Richland Co., Gaukler Wetland 08/01/00-08/30/00 American Coot, Pied-billed Grebe, Unidentified Duck, Ring-billed Gull 10 Botulism type C NW
NV Churchhill Co., Canvasback Club Fallon Sewer Ponds 07/07/00-08/06/00 White-faced Ibis, Gadwall, Green-winged Teal, Redhead Duck, Mallard 90 Botulism type C NW
NY NJ, MD, MA, RI, CT, PA Across states 05/20/00-ongoing Blue Jay, Fish Crow, American Crow 5000 (e) Viral Infection: West Nile NW,NY, AS
NY Throughout State 08/04/00-11/06/00 Mourning Dove 143 Parasitism: Trichomoniasis NY
NY Ontario Co., Canandaigua Lake 07/24/00-07/28/00 Mudpuppy Salamander 9 Open NW
OH Richland Co. 07/08/00-07/08/00 Canada Goose 12 Open NW
OH Kenton & Hamilton Co. 06/05/00-06/22/00 Cooper's Hawk, Red-shouldered Hawk, Great-horned Owl, Screech Owl 9 Toxicosis suspect NW
PA Erie Co., Presque Isle SP 07/17/00-09/01/00 Semipalmated Sandpiper, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, Bonaparte's Gull, Ring-billed Gull 150 (e) Botulism type E NW
SC Jasper Co., Savannah 08/30/00-09/18/00 Great Egret, Snowy Egret 50 Botulism suspect NW
SD Bennett Co., LaCreek NWR 07/14/00-09/01/00 Mallard, Unidentified Duck, Double-crested Cormorant, Unidentified Goose, American White Pelican 420 Botulism type C NW
TX Austin, Stillhouse Hollow Stream 07/18/97-04/17/00 Salamander, Jollyville Plateau 26* Deformities: Scoliosis NW
TX Willacy Co., Laguna Madre 07/25/00-07/29/00 Louisiana Heron, Royal Tern, Reddish Egret, Tricolored Heron 50 (e) Exposure: Hypothermia Dehydration NW
VT Franklin Co., Lake Carmi 08/09/00-08/30/00 Mallard 15 Botulism type C NW
VT Franklin Co., Missisquoi NWR 08/19/00-09/24/00 Wood Duck, Northern Shoveler, Blue-winged Teal, Green-winged Teal, Mallard 155 Botulism type C NW
WA Grays Harbor Co. 07/16/00-08/20/00 Sea Otter 18 Open NW
WI Kenosha Co. Harbor 09/14/00-10/01/00 Mallard 40 Botulism type C NW
WI Manitowoc Co. Harbor 07/03/00-07/20/00 Ring-billed Gull 200 (e) Salmonellosis NW
WI Milwaukee,Lake Michigan 07/18/00-08/24/00 Ring-billed Gull, Herring Gull, Mallard 87 Botulism type C NW
WI Outagamie Co., Little Lake Butte Des Morts 08/12/00-09/05/00 Mallard, Blue-winged Teal, Double-crested Cormorant 65 Botulism type C NW,WI
WI Racine Co., Lake Michigan 08/16/00-08/22/00 Unidentified Teal, Herring Gull, Unidentified Shorebird,Mallard 24 Botulism type C NW, WI
WI Washburn Co. 04/01/00-04/30/00 Brewer's Blackbird, Brown-headed Cowbird, Red-winged Blackbird 30 Toxicosis: Strychnine WI
WY Carbon & Laramie Co. 09/08/00-09/08/00 Wyoming Toad 3 Open NW
WY Teton Co., National Elk Refuge 07/22/00-09/05/00 Boreal Toad 2 Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
Updates and Corrections:
Reported
State
Location Dates Species Mortality Diagnosis Reported
By
CA Shasta Co., Whiskeytown NRA 06/14/00-06/30/00 Bull Frog 100 (e) Undetermined, Toxicosis suspect NW
CO Larimer Co., Rocky Mountain NP 05/01/00-05/01/00 Boreal Toad 1 Fungal Infection: Chytrid NW
MA Hampshire Co., Granby 06/15/00-07/25/00 Wood Frog, Spotted Salamander 11,000 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
ME Penobscot Co. Acadia NP 08/01/00-08/11/00 Bull Frog, Green Frog 200 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
MN Crow Wing Co. (CWB & CWN sites) 06/15/00-07/13/00 Green Frog, Northern Leopard Frog, Mink Frog 100 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus Fungal Infection:Yeast-like NW
MN Crow Wing Co., Esden Lake 06/20/00-09/15/00 Mink Frog 100 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
NC Graham Co., Tulula Wetlands 03/27/00-04/16/00 Wood Frog, Spotted Salamander 3,000 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
NC Graham Co., Tulula Wetlands 06/12/00-07/13/00 Bull Frog Spotted Salamander 10 (e) Viral Infection:Iridovirus Fungal Infections: Yeast-like & Chytrid NW
ND Stutsman Co., Cottonwood Lake 06/04/00-07/18/00 Tiger Salamander 1,000 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
ND Kidder Co., Horsehead Lake 06/22/00-09/09/00 Blue-winged Teal, Western Grebe, Northern Pintail, Franklin's Gull, Eared Grebe 3,655 Botulism type C NW
NE Omaha, Fontenelle Park 06/27/00-07/15/00 Wood Duck, Mallard, Domestic Goose, Domestic Duck, Canada Goose 30 (e) Botulism type C NW
SC Charleston Co. 05/26/00-06/26/00 Mallard, Muscovy Duck 42 (e) Duck plague SC
TN Blount Co., Great Smokey Mtns. 05/10/00-06/01/00 Wood Frog, Marbled Salamander, Eastern Spotted Newt 24 (e) Viral Infection: Iridovirus NW
WA Okanogan Co., Okanogan NF 05/18/00-06/01/00 Cassin's Finch, Pine Siskin 50 (e) Salmonellosis NW

(e) = estimate, * = morbidity and mortality

California Dept. of Fish & Game-Wildlife Invest. Lab (CA); Centers for Disease Control, Ft. Collins, CO (CDC); Colorado Division of Wildlife (CO), Connecticut Ag. Exp. Station & Univ. of Connecticut (CT); Illinois Dept. of Nat. Res. (IL); Live- stock Disease Diagnostic Center (KY); Louisiana Game & Fish (LA); Nat'l Wildlife Health Center (NW); New Jersey Dept. of Fish & Wildlife (NJ); New York State Dept. of Env. Cons. (NY); Purdue Diagnostics Lab (PD); Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SC); US Geological Survey (GS), Washington Dept. of Fish & Game (WA), and Wisconsin Dept. of Nat. Res. (WI).

Written and compiled by Kathryn Converse, Kimberli Miller, Linda Glaser, Terry Creekmore, and Audra Schrader, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC). To report mortality or if you would like specific information on these mortalities, contact one of the following NWHC staff: Western US Kathryn Converse; Eastern US--Kimberli Miller; Hawaiian Islands--Thierry Work. Phone (608) 270-2400, FAX (608) 270-2415 or E-mail kathy_converse@usgs.gov. National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711.

Quarterly Mortality Reports

WNV 2000
West Nile virus (WNV) is a cause of wildlife mortality in the eastern US again this year. WNV is an arthropod- borne virus that had never been reported in the Western Hemisphere until the fall of 1999 when wild birds (primarily crows), horses, and people were affected in an outbreak in the greater New York City (NYC) area. This year, WNV was first detected in wild birds found dead the third week of May in southeastern New York and northeastern New Jersey and mortality in wild birds has been ongoing. Horses and people were affected again this year also. This year's outbreak is expanded both geographically and in the number of species found infected with WNV when compared to last year's outbreak.

Wild mammals were first found positive for WNV in August this year. Initially, bats found alive in private homes were submitted for rabies testing and then subsequently tested for WNV after being found rabies negative. A total of 25 wild mammals including bats, raccoons, chipmunks, and squirrels were found infected with WNV in the state of NY. A WNV positive skunk was found in CT. It appears that at least some of the bats found positive for WNV are dying of WNV and it is unknown whether these species are incidental hosts or if they are capable of transmitting WNV through a mosquito vector. At least 14 species of mosquitoes were found positive for WNV including both mammal and bird feeding species and species active at dawn and dusk, and during the day.

Amphibian Mortality/Morbidity
Chytridiomycosis, epidermal infections by the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, was detected in multiple species of frogs, toads and salamanders, including tadpoles, larvae, neotenes and adults from 6 states. In three states (MN, NC & TX) this was the first detection of the pathogenic chytrid fungus. In 3 states chytridiomycosis had been previously diagnosed in amphibians in 1999 or previous years. Amphibian mortalities were attributed to the chytrid fungal infection only in adult (post-metamorphic) frogs and toads, while the chytrid infections in tadpoles and salamanders were considered incidental findings. Although the chytrid infections probably were subclinical cases in the salamanders, at two sites, it was reported that sympatric frogs and toads had suffered marked population declines. These findings provide further support to the theory that the pathogenic chytrid fungus is an important etiology in mortality events and may contribute to population declines in adult frogs and toads.

Iridovirus epizootics were considered the cause of mortality events in 9 amphibian species in 6 states. For the first time, mortality events attributable to iridovirus infections were observed in marbled salamanders and spring peepers in 2000. In addition, mortality events that simultaneously affected both ranid tadpoles and salamanders were observed at casualty sites in three states (MA, MN & NC). At two sites, mortality events have recurred annually for at least 3 consecutive years. Affected life stages were usually tadpoles, larvae, neotenes or recent metamorphs. Infected frogs and salamanders presented a variety of gross abnormalities, including hyperemia and petechiae in the ventral skin, skin ulcers, hydrocoelom, and mild focal ventral dermal edema to very severe generalized dermal edema of the body and limbs. All isolated iridoviruses are believed to be the genus, Ranavirus, in the family, Iridoviridae, but confirmatory molecular analyses are pending.

For additional information please contact Dr. Scott Wright, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Disease Investigations Branch Chief, at 608-270-2460 or Paul Slota, USGS National Wildlife Health Center - Support Services Branch Chief at 608-270-2420.

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