National Wildlife Health Center

...advancing wildlife and ecosystem health

Image of Milton Friend

Milton Friend

Title: Emeritus Scientist
Phone: 608-270-2488

Education and/or Training

B.S. 1958 University of Maine Wildlife Conservation; Forestry minor
M.S. 1965 University of Massachusetts Wildlife Management; Epidemiology minor
Ph.D. 1971 University of Wisconsin-Madison Veterinary Science/Wildlife Ecology; Epidemiology minor

Areas of specialization and or research interests

Wildlife Disease
Disease Ecology
Wildlife Ecology
Wildlife Management
Epidemiology
Teaching

Professional Experience

2001-2002 Biologist U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center
1998-2001 Executive Director, Salton Sea Science Subcommittee, and Chief Scientist, Salton Sea Science Office, U.S. Dept. of the Interior
1975-1998 Director, National Wildlife Health Research Center
1987-present Adjunct Professor, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison
1975-1987 Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison
1973-1975 Section Chief, Pesticide-Wildlife Ecology, Denver Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
1971-1973 Wildlife Biologist (Research), Denver Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
1961-1966 Research Project Leader, Wildlife Pathology and Physiology, New York State Conservation Department
1960-1961 Conservation Biologist (Research), New York State Conservation Department
1958 Conservation Assistant (Fisheries), Massachusetts Fish and Game
1956 Assistant Waterfowl Biologist, Vermont Fish and Game

Professional activities and/or memberships

The Wildlife Society (Life Member)

Honors and/or Awards

Secretary 1971-1973 Wildlife Disease Association
President 1974-1975 Wildlife Disease Association
U.S. Delegate 1987 Environment and Ecology Subgroup, Ninth Indo-U.S. Science and Technology Subcommission Meeting, New Delhi, India
Distinguished Service Award 1987 Wildlife Disease Association
Keynote Speaker 1987 Third International Wildlife Disease Conference, Munich, Germany
Blue Pencil Award 1988 National Association of Government Communicators (publication for technical audience)
Wildlife Disease Consultant 1994-1998 Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris, France
Cultural Achievement Award 1995 National Biological Survey (Director’s Award)
Distinguished Service Award 1996 U.S. Department of the Interior
Recognition Award 1996-1997 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1
Plenary Presenter 1997 Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference
Inductee 1997 University of Wisconsin-Madison Teaching Academy
Meritorious Service Award 1998 U.S. Department of the Interior
Special Service Award 1998 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Keynote Speaker 1999 International Waterfowl Conference, London, United Kingdom
Keynote Speaker 2000, 2002 Salton Sea Symposium
Keynote Speaker 2003 Workshop on Health Management of Wild Animals in Zoos (India)
Presenter 2003 Congressional Briefing – Preparing for the Next Disease: The Human-Wildlife Connection
Plenary Presenter 2004 Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine Wildlife Symposium
Keynote Speaker 2004 Zoological Society of London Wild Animal Health Conference, London, United Kingdon
Blue Pencil/Gold Screen Award 2007 National Association of Government Communicators (best book)
Best Book Award 2007 The Wildlife Society
Emeritus Award for Meritorious Contributions 2009 Wildlife Disease Association – for contributions to the study and understanding of diseases in wildlife

Selected Publications

FRIEND, M. 1968. History and epidemiology of rabies in wildlife in New York. N.Y. Fish and Game Journal 15(1):71-97.

FRIEND, M., and D.O. Trainer. 1972. Experimental Newcastle disease studies in the mallard. Avian Diseases 16(4):700-713.

FRIEND, M. 1973. Duck plague: The Lake Andes Epizootic, A slide series (with nar.). Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Denver Wildlife Research Center.

FRIEND, M. 1973. Duck plague: A diagnostic slide series (with nar.). Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Denver Wildlife Research Center.

FRIEND, M., and G.L. Pearson. 1973. Duck plague (Duck Virus Enteritis) in wild waterfowl. U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

FRIEND, M. 1975. New dimensions in diseases affecting waterfowl. Pages 155-162 in First International Waterfowl Symposium. Ducks Unlimited.

FRIEND, M. 1976. Disease problems and needs. Pages 2-7 in Proceedings of Second International Waterfowl Symposium. Ducks Unlimited.

FRIEND, M., and J.H. Abel, Jr. 1976. Inhibition of mallard salt gland function by DDE and organophosphates. Pages 261-269 in L.A. Page, editor. Wildlife Disease, New York, N.Y.

FRIEND, M., M.A. Haegle, D.L. Meeker, T. Hudson, and C.H. Baer. 1979. Correlations between residues of dichlorodiphenylethane, polychiorinated biphenyl, and diedrin in the serum and tissues of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Pages 319-326 in Animals as Monitors of Environmental Pollutants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.

FRIEND, M. 1981. Waterfowl diseases — changing perspectives for the future. Pages 189-196 in Fourth International Waterfowl Symposium. New Orleans, LA.

FRIEND, M. 1981. Waterfowl management and waterfowl disease: independent or cause and effect relationships. Pages 94-103 in Transactions of the 46th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.

FRIEND, M. 1984. Waterfowl get sick too. Pages 478-485 in A.S. Hawkins, R.C. Hanson, H.K. Nelson, and H.M. Reeves, editors. Flyways Pioneering Waterfowl Management in North America. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

FRIEND, M., L.N. Locke, and J.J. Kennelly. 1985. Avian botulism. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. No. 579-039.

FRIEND, M. 1986. Lead poisoning in waterfowl. Videotape (27 minutes 49 seconds). U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

FRIEND, M. 1988. Avian cholera. Pages 69-82 in M. Friend, C.J. Laitman and R.S. Kampen, editors. Field Guide to wildlife diseases, Vol. 1. General field procedures and diseases of migratory birds. U.S. Department of the interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource publication 167.

FRIEND, M. 1988. Lead poisoning. Pages 175-189 in M. Friend, C.J. Laitman and R.S. Kampen, editors. Field guide to wildlife diseases, Vol. 1. General field procedures and diseases of migratory birds. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 164.

FRIEND, M. and J.C. Franson. 1988. Disease control operations. Pages 21-58 in M. Friend, C.J. Laitman and R.S. Kampen, editors. Field Guide to wildlife diseases, Vol. 1. General field procedures and diseases of migratory birds. U.S. Department of the interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publication 167.

FRIEND, M., C.J. Laitman and R.S. Kampen, editors. 1988. Field guide to wildlife diseases, vol. 1. General field procedures and disease of migratory birds. U.S. Department of the interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D.C., Resource publication 167.

FRIEND, M. 1989. Avian cholera: a major new cause of waterfowl mortality. Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.2.5, Waterfowl Management Handbook, U.S. Department of the Interior.

FRIEND, M. and N.J. Thomas. 1991. Disease prevention and control in endangered avian species: Special considerations and needs. Acta XX Congressus Intemationalis Ornithologici, Vol. IV: 233 1-2337, Christchurch, New Zealand.

FRIEND, M. 1992. Environmental influences on major waterfowl diseases. Pages 517-525 in Transactions of the 57th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Charlotte, NC.

FRIEND, M., D.E. Toweill, R.L. Brownell, Jr., V.F. Nettles, D.S. Davis, and W.J. Foreyt. 1994. Guidelines for proper care and use of wildlife in field research. Pages 96-105 in Theodore A. Bookhout, editor. Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats. Fifth edition. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD.

FRIEND, M. 1995. Increased avian diseases with habitat change. Pages 401-405 in La Roe, E.T., G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac editors. Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, D.C. 530 pp.

FRIEND, M. 1997. Forward, i-u, in: Saving the Salton Sea. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., 96pp.

FRIEND, M. 1998. Duck plague: emergence of a new cause of waterfowl mortality. Pages 458-460; 471 in Mac, M.J., P.A. Opler, C.E. Puckett Haecker, and P.D. Doran, editors. Status and trends of the nation’s biological resources. Vol. 2. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

FRIEND, M. and J.C. Franson. 1999. Editors. Field manual of wildlife diseases. General field procedures and diseases of birds. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Information and Technology Report 1999-200 1.

FRIEND, M. 2001. Wildlife rehabilitation and disease emergence: opportunities, challenges and responsibilities. pp. 3-20 in Ludwig, D.R., editors. Wildlife Rehabilitation, Vol. 19, Nineteenth Annual Symposium, National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, Lake Tahoe, NV.

FRIEND, M. 2002. Avian disease at the Salton Sea. Hydrobiologia, 473: 293-306.

FRIEND, M. and T.G. McLean. 2002. Understanding the Impact on Animal and Human Health in The Emergence of Zoonotic Diseases. pp. 52-58. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

FRIEND, M. 2006. Disease Emergence and Reemergence: The Wildlife – Human Connection U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 388 pp.

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